Hereford, Herefordshire

Extract from Littlebury's Directory and Gazetteer of Herefordshire, 1876-7
with Private and Commercial Residents

Transcribed by Rosemary Lockie, © Copyright 2005

HEREFORD, a city of considerable antiquity and historical interest, is picturesquely situated nearly in the middle of the county, upon both banks of the river Wye, though principally upon its northern bank. It is the capital of the county to which it gives name; is the see of a bishop, a parliamentary and municipal borough, head of a polling district, county court district, poor-law union, and petty sessional division; is the place for holding assizes and sessions for county and city; has its own deanery, archdeaconry, ecclesiastical and probate courts, &c. It is an important railway centre between the northern and midland counties of England and South Wales. Its geographical situation is 52° 3' 2". north latitude, and 2° 43' 1". west longitude, from Greenwich. It is locally situated in the hundred of Grimsworth. The general aspect of the city combines much that is ancient and venerable, with indications of a high degree of commercial prosperity and modern refinement. It is well paved and cleanly kept; the streets are regular, some of them spacious and handsome; and the public buildings evince much judgment and taste. The city is well lighted with gas, and there is a plentiful supply of water. A recent writer characterises Hereford as "one of the best-built and most agreeable cities in the kingdom".

COMMUNICATIONS.- The facilities afforded by the recent extensions of the railway system tend greatly to increase the population and commerce of this inland city. It is the junction of several important railways having direct communication with all parts of the kingdom. The Shrewsbury and Hereford railway (opened December 1853) is the direct route to the North, and is worked jointly by the Great Western and London and North-Western Railway Companies. The Hereford, Ross, and Gloucester railway (opened in June 1855) communicates with the metropolis, and a branch line from Ross to Monmouth was opened a few years since. The Newport, Abergavenny, and Hereford railway (opened December 1853), with a branch from Hereford to Worcester (which considerably shortens the route from the former city to the midland counties generally, and is a direct route to the metropolis), is designated the West Midland section of the Great Western railway. The Hereford, Hay, and Brecon railway (opened in 1864) is 384 miles in length, and opens up an intercourse with an important portion of the Principality of Wales. It is worked by the Midland Railway Company, who also have running powers over the Worcester and Hereford branch of the Great Western railway.

There are two stations: the Great Western and London and North-Western trains run from Barr's Court joint station; the Midland Company's trains to Worcester, Birmingham, Hay, Brecon, &c., run from the Barton station. It has been proposed to erect a convenient station in a central part of the city, to accommodate all the companies. The Midland goods traffic is chiefly confined to Moorfields station.

The Herefordshire and Gloucestershire canal is now the property of the Great Western Railway Company. It is 34 miles long, and was constructed at the cost of £223,907. It commences at Gloucester, where it communicates with the river Severn, passes Newent in Gloucestershire, and Ledbury in Herefordshire, terminating at Hereford, to which place it was opened for traffic in the year 1844. The principal traffic is with Bristol for foreign timber, Gloucester with corn, and with Staffordshire for coal, exporting to the latter district large quantities of timber for mining purposes, hay, &c.

 Miles Miles Miles
Abergavenny22¼Exeter 141¼Nottingham102
Cheltenham37Manchester 131Swindon,67¼
Chepstow45¼Monmouth (20 by road)23Taunton106¼
Cirencester58¼Newcastle277¾Worcester (26 byroad)29½
Edinburgh351¾Newport (Mon.)40York216¼

POPULATION.- The population of the city of Hereford, according to Government returns, in 1801 was 6,828; in 1811, 7,306; in 1821, 9,090; in 1831, 10,282; in 1841, 10,921; in 1851, 12,108; in 1861, 15,585; and in 1871, 18,347. The houses and population of the parishes within the parliamentary and municipal limits of the city enumerated in 1871 were as follows:-

All SaintsParish1,0838035,3182,5642,754
Breinton (part of)3......1174
Bullingham Upper (part of)4141138
Holmer and Shelwick (part of)2983021,446750696
St. John the BaptistParish2885...1,390637753
St. Martin (part of)29722...1,411669742
St. Nicholas3262541,552700852
St. Owen6483713,2631,5131,750
St. Peter53133...2,9911,4631,528
Tupsley (part of)1539...827360467
Vineyard, The1......1165
Wards: Ledbury1,3477927,1733,3603,813
”  Leominster1,43611846,9473,4123,535
”  Monmouth8734784,2271,9552,272
Municipal and Parliamentary Limits3,6562441418,3478,7279,620

* The municipal and parliamentary limits are co-extensive.

HISTORY.- The antiquity of Hereford is remote; the precise era of its origin is not certain. It is said to have existed in the year 676 or 680, for during the reign of Penda, King of Mercia, who had embraced Christianity, a synod was held here for the purpose of erecting a new see in Mercia, in consequence of which Putta was chosen bishop of Hereford; and there is every probability that it originated soon after the exit of the Romans, when Magna Castra (now Kenchester), the nearest Roman station, was deserted.

The etymology of its name, like many other places founded at an obscure period, is various and contradictory. Camden observes that the Britons called the place Trefawidd and Caerfawidd, or the beech town, from the number of beeches which then grew in the neighbourhood. It was also called by them Hen-with (from the old road), and Hen-fodd, i.e., the old way; and from these words Mr. Gough supposes the Saxons to have formed its present name, which in the language of that people signifies the ford of the army. The early Saxon name was Fernleg, or "the place of ferns". Another possible origin is Haroldfort, for after the destruction of the city in 1055, the castle was strongly repaired by Harold, afterwards king. In ancient maps and descriptions, the orthography Hariford frequently occurs.

The district in which it is situated formed part of the province called by the Romans Siluria, a name derived from the British Essyllwg, signifying an open country abounding with prospects, and comprehended the counties of Hereford, Monmouth, Glamorgan, and Radnor, together with the portion of Gloucestershire which lies west of the Severn. The Silures were a brave and independent race, and under the leadership of Caractacus and other chiefs successfully withstood the ablest generals of Rome for thirty years after the rest of Britain had submitted to the imperial yoke, but were eventually subdued by Julius Frontinus, A.D. 73.

On the exit of the Romans, the Silures re-established themselves in their ancient territory; and in the year 520 we find Boel, the earl or governor of Trefawidd, a knight of King Arthur's round table, attending the court of that prince at Caerleon. For more than a hundred years this people withstood the invasion of the Saxons, and were not finally subjugated until late in the 7th century, when the city, with the surrounding district, was annexed to the Mercian kingdom, of which it became the capital.

Whatever was the origin of Hereford, its having been fixed on as the seat of a bishop was certainly the means of preserving and extending its consequence. It was the opinion of Bishops Stillingfleet and Burgess that Christianity was first promulgated in this part of the island. It had a magnificent church, according to Polydore Virgil, as early as the reign of Offa, and even before the present cathedral was endowed by that sovereign, in expiation of the murder of Ethelbert, King of the East Angles. In 776, during the reign of Offa, when that prince was absent on a hostile excursion, the Britons invaded and ravaged his territories. On his return he defeated them with great slaughter, and in pursuing his success extended his dominions; adding to them all the remaining part of the present county of Hereford.

In order to mark his boundary, and protect his conquests, be made a new line of demarcation by his famous dyke, called Clawdd Offa, portions of which yet remain near the western boundaries of Herefordshire, Salop, and Cheshire. He also removed his residence to Sutton Walls, anciently a Roman camp, five miles north of Hereford, where he erected a palace; strongly defended by entrenchments. It was here that a catastrophe occurred, which laid the foundation of much of the future prosperity and importance of both cathedral and city. The restless ambition of Offa having prompted him to attack the neighbouring kingdom of East Anglia, with a view of adding it to his own dominions, he was defeated in the attempt by the successful valour of Ethelbert.

Peace being subsequently concluded, Offa invited the young and unsuspecting prince to his palace at Sutton, under pretence of giving him his daughter Elfrida in marriage; but on his arrival, Quendreda, the wife of Offa, impelled by the ambition of procuring a new kingdom for her family, obtained the consent of her husband to violate all the ties of honour and hospitality by putting their unfortunate guest to death, which was immediately executed by some partisans in the service of the queen, A.D. 793. His body was first privately interred at Marden, but soon afterwards Offa, stung with remorse, caused it to be removed to the Lady Chapel at Fernlega (Hereford), where he erected a magnificent tomb to his memory.

The murdered prince, who had while living been considered to possess various eminent qualifications, was after his death regarded as a saint; and many miraculous events were affirmed to have occurred at the place of his interment. Milfrid, a viceroy or provincial governor here in the time of Egbert, was induced to inquire into the truth of these reputed miracles, and the result of the investigation proving satisfactory, he determined to erect a new stone church on the site of the former, in honour of St. Ethelbert. As the ample grants of Milfrid were not only augmented by the donations of Offa, but still further increased by the numerous offerings made by the pilgrims who flocked in multitudes to the shrine of the murdered king, both cathedral and city rapidly rose to a degree of repute and opulence.

To provide an effectual barrier against the frequent and destructive incursions of the Britons, or, as they were then termed, the Welsh, probably also to afford a means of defence to the cathedral, Edward the Elder, in 908, commenced building the castle of Hereford, described by Leland as having been one of the fairest, largest, and strongest fabrics of the kind in England. Its situation was on the north bank of the Wye, slightly westward of the cathedral; the site of the largest or eastern ward is now occupied by a favourite and deservedly admired promenade, the Castle Green. In 927, the city wall, many portions of which yet remain, was commenced by order of Athelstan, the grandson of Alfred the Great. It was 16 feet in height, and extended round the city on its north, east, and west sides, the south being defended by the river. Projecting from this wall, at intervals, were fifteen semicircular embattled watch-towers, 34 feet high, having embrasures in the shape of crosses in the centre and sides, for observation and the discharge of arrows.

Although portions of the wall have doubtless been repaired and rebuilt since the days of Athelstan, the present remains undoubtedly stand on the ancient foundation. At the six principal entrances of the city were as many gates, which, in connection with the wall, formed an agreeable termination to the several streets, and added materially to the venerable appearance of the city. Their removal may be regretted by the antiquary, but the superior healthiness of the city, now that no obstacle is offered to the free sweep of the winds, must be deemed an ample compensation. Wyebridge gate, which stood at the south end of the bridge, and Friars gate on the south-west, were taken down by order of the Corporation in 1782; St. Owen's (formerly St. Andrew's), on the south-east, in 1786; Eign, on the west, in 1787; Widemarsh, on the north, and Bye-street, or Byesters gate, which has also been called Bishop's gate, on the north-east, in 1798. A moat, which was obtained by diverting the course of the Yazor brook, surrounded the wall, and a shallow stream yet remains in the place it once occupied.

In 939 the same monarch effected a treaty with the Welsh, by which they were compelled annually to pay twenty pounds in gold, three hundred in silver, and two hundred head of cattle, besides hawks and hounds; which tribute was commuted by Edgar in 966 to, one of three hundred wolves' heads. The supposed scene of Athelstan's treaty is a rising ground within a mile of the city, named after the monarch, Athelstan, but corrupted in pronunciation to Aylestone hill.

During the commotions caused by the Danes in the ensuing century, Hereford, from its situation, seems to have remained comparatively tranquil. In 1052 an inroad of the Welsh was successfully repulsed by the garrison; but three years afterwards Algar, Earl of Chester, who had been banished from the court of Edward the Confessor, in concert with Gryffyth ap Llewellyn, the Welsh sovereign, invaded Herefordshire with a large army. After defeating the English forces under the command of Ranulph, the governor of the castle, who had been induced to give them battle about two miles west of Hereford, they pursued the fugitives into the city; when a terrific scene of pillage and slaughter ensued. The bishop (Leofgar), and other cathedral dignitaries, together with many of the principal inhabitants, who had taken refuge in the cathedral, were put to the sword - the invaders forcing an entrance; and the building itself, with most of the city, was consumed by fire. A peculiar blackness of soil, observable for some distance round the cathedral to a depth of several feet, yet remains as an evidence of the catastrophe.

Gryffyth and his army returned into Wales with considerable booty and many prisoners of rank, leaving behind them, according to the Welsh chronicle, nothing but blood and ashes, contriving also to elude the pursuit of Harold, who advanced against them from Gloucester. The castle and fortifications of Hereford were renovated, if not altogether rebuilt, by Harold, during whose stay here the infamous Tostig committed the barbarity of murdering the whole of his brother's servants, and immersing their limbs in liquors provided for an entertainment, which horrible act was the cause of his expulsion from the kingdom. As writers have differed respecting the origin of this castle, we insert the following extract from the collections of Mr. Duncumb:-

"When Harold rebuilt the walls, it seems highly probable that he founded the castle for the further defence of the town, yet on this point writers are not fully agreed. It is, however, well known that the policy of Edward the Confessor induced him, in the early part of his reign, to fortify strongly places of consequence, and especially those most accessible or advantageous to his enemies - which was precisely the situation of Hereford, from its vicinity to Wales. But Grafton writes that Edward the Elder, son of Alured, in the eighth year of his reign (908, built a strong castle at Hereford; and a manuscript in the Harleian library mentions, from Hollinshed, that Gryffyth, King of Wales, wasted a great part of Herefordshire, against whom the men of that county and Normans out of the castle of Hereford went; but Gryffyth obtained the victory, slaying many, and taking a great prey".

The castle of Hereford is thus described by Leland:- "The castle standeth on the left ripe of Wye river, and a little beneath the bridge, and is strongly ditched ubi non defenditur flumine. The walles of it be high and stronge, and full of great toweres; it hath been one of the largest, fayrest, and strongest castles in England. By the side of this ditch arose a spring, which superstition ascribed to St. Ethelbert".

This is situated on the north side of the western ward, and retains a degree of reputation to the present day. The castle is now almost demolished, the only remnant being that of a fragment at the south-west corner, now converted into a dwelling. There is every probability that this fortress was never restored after the siege in the year 1645, although it continued to be defended by a garrison till 1652, at which time it was returned by the Parliamentary commissioners as ruinous, and its materials as worth only the small sum of £85.

At the Domesday survey in 1086, Hereford was so much reduced from its former importance as only to number 103 inhabitants, who, however, were compelled to pay sixty pounds in silver coin yearly to the Conqueror, by whom a provincial mint was established here. There were at this period only sixty houses in the city, whereas in 1051, four years previous to the inroad of Algar and Gryffyth, there had been as many as ninety-eight.

In 1138, William Talbot, a partisan of the Empress Maud, took possession of the castle, and held it for three years; after which the garrison surrendered to King Stephen, who sat crowned in the cathedral during divine service on Whit Sunday, 1141. On his departure, the king ordered that part of the city lying south of the river to be set on fire, lest it might afford shelter to a besieging army. The present name of one portion of these suburbs, Blackmarston, or Black-marsh-town, bears witness to the fact of this conflagration.

Among the barons and subjects of King John who succeeded in obtaining the signature of that monarch to Magna Charta, the name of Giles de Braose, Bishop of Hereford, is honourably prominent. It is evident that these parts were infested by wolves much later than is generally supposed; for, so late as 1238, a royal proclamation was issued, enjoining the total destruction of those noxious animals in this and the adjoining counties. In 1241 the Earl of Pembroke, was killed here in a tournament. The precise spot of this disaster is not known. Mr. Duncumb suggests that it may have been the area in the eastern ward of the castle, now The Green.

On the ruptures between Henry III. and the barons in 1264, the first act of open hostility was committed at this place, in the seizure of the bishop, Peter do Aquablanca, a foreigner appointed to the see by the Pope, who had rendered himself obnoxious by unpopular measures. At the same period, Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, making common cause with the disaffected barons, invaded the possessions of the house of Mortimer, which were large in this county, with a numerous army. In the following year, Prince Edward, who with his father had been taken prisoners at the battle of Lewes, was confined in Hereford castle. Being allowed to exercise himself on horseback in a meadow called Widemarsh, he so far profited by this indulgence as to tire all the horses of his guard in succession, and then mounting his own, which was perfectly fresh, rode at full speed to Dinmore hill, where he was met by a band of his father's adherents, and escorted in triumph to Wigmore castle.

After the subjugation of Wales by this prince in 1290, Mael-gwyn Fychan, the leader of a revolt, and two comrades, were brought to Hereford, and in order to strike terror through the country, were dragged to the place of execution at the tails of horses. At a council held in this city in 1326, the unhappy Edward II. was deposed; and at the same time, Hugh de Spencer the younger, Earl of Gloucester, was hanged outside the Friar gate, on a gallows fifty feet high, with a chaplet of nettles round his bead, by order of the queen. Four days afterwards; John, Earl of Arundel; Sir Simon de Reding, John Daniel, and Thomas de Michaeldure, were beheaded in the castle for no greater crime than that of having been the favourites or ministers of an incapable king.

In 1461, after the battle fought at Mortimer's Cross, about twelve miles to the north-east of the city, Owen Tudor, the grandfather of Henry VII., and nine other prisoners of rank, were executed at Hereford by the Yorkists. During the civil wars of the seventeenth century, Hereford was besieged three times by the Parliamentary forces. In 1643, although the city was in excellent condition to withstand an attack, Sir Richard Cave, the Royalist governor, surrendered without opposition to Sir William Waller, who was nevertheless soon obliged to abandon the place; immediately after which it was strongly garrisoned by the Royalists under Barnabas Scudamore, Esq., brother to the first viscount of that name, a nobleman remarkable not only for his fidelity to the Royal cause, but also for the permanent benefits he conferred upon his native county, having been the first to bring the cultivation of the apple tree in this district to a state of perfection. In July 1645, Hereford was again besieged by a large body of Scotch auxiliaries under the Earl of Leven; but after an ineffectual struggle of a month's continuance; and just as the earl had completed his preparations for storming the place, he was compelled to retreat by the approach of Charles I. with a superior force from Worcester. The entrenchments thrown up by the Scotch during this siege are still visible on different sides of the city. Though successful in this enterprise, the cause of Charles soon became hopeless, and even Hereford continued but a short time in his hands. It was taken in the following December by a detachment of Parliamentary troops under the command of Colonel Birch (who successfully stormed Goodrich castle a few months later), Colonel Morgan, and Captain Silas Taylor, who are recorded to have obtained possession of the city by the following stratagem.

A number of summonses or warrants having been issued by the governor of the city to the country people to assist in repairing the fortifications, several of them were intercepted by the enemy; and by means of these warrants, a constable and six picked men, habited in the guise of labourers, with pickaxes and spades, obtained admission at the Friar gate, and having killed three of the guard, admitted the rest of the Parliamentary army. The gallant defence of Hereford against the Scots was rewarded after the Restoration by a new charter, and an augmentation of the city arms, with the motto, Invictæ fidelitatis præmium. Since that period no event of distinguished historical celebrity has occurred in the city.

PLACES OF WORSHIP.- Cathedral of St. Ethelbert and St. Mary.- The ancient district of Siluria, of which the city of Hereford and its vicinity form a portion, was nominally Christianised before its conquest by the Saxons. It is stated both by Archbishop Usher and Heylin that a Bishop of Caerffawidd (the ancient British name of Hereford) attended an ecclesiastical meeting convened by the Archbishop of Caerleon (whose seat was afterwards removed to St. David's) in the year 544, and the see of Hereford is considered to be the oldest in England. The roll of prelates contains names the most eminent in the annals of the Church, and all are recorded except two - those constituted in 544 and 601. The third, Bishop Putta, succeeding in 676, is the first name on the roll of Hereford.

There were twenty-nine bishops before the Conquest, the last being Walter de Lorraine in 1061. His successor, Robert Losinga (temp. William I.), took possession of the see in 1079. The bishops constituted since the Norman Conquest up to the death of the late Right Reverend Renn Dickson Hampden in April 1868, and presiding with two intermissions only of seven years and sixteen years, the latter from 1646-1660, on demise of Bishop Coke, are 67 - in all 96. The Right Reverend James Atlay, D.D., consecrated on June 24, 1868, and enthroned in the cathedral on Thursday, July 2, is therefore the ninety-eighth prelate wearing the episcopal mitre within the ancient and loyal city of Hereford.

Saint Augustine, who was invested with archiepiscopal dignity by Pope Gregory, A.D. 597, was confirmed by Ethelbert, King of Kent, at the instigation of his queen (a Christian princess) Bertha, daughter of Charibert, King of France, to the city of Canterbury with its dependencies some years after, when the church of Canterbury was made a cathedral and dedicated to the name of Christ. The earliest Christian temple at Hereford, known as the chapel of Fernlege, preceded the first cathedral by a century or two, which cathedral is supposed to have been built on the site of the present cathedral on the accession of Bishop Putta, A.D. 676.

The cathedral and city of Hereford, bordering so closely on the principality of Wales, have suffered several times by the incursions and ravages of the ancient Britons. The permanent establishment of Hereford as a bishop's see was completed by Archbishop Theodore, who, after the Council at Hereford (A.D. 673), divided the great diocese of Mercia, as he had done that of East Anglia, into several bishoprics. It was in 676 that Mercian dominions were divided into the sees of Hereford, Worcester, Lichfield, and Leicester; and Putta, Bishop of Rochester, was then translated to Hereford. Of the bishops of this see (A.D. 688 to A.D. 1012), between Putta and Ethelstan, little is recorded but their names. Cuthbert (736-740), is an exception, and in the latter year he was translated to Canterbury. In his arcbiepiscopate the Lord's Prayer and the Creed were ordered to be universally taught in English.

The first Saxon cathedral at Hereford, in Bishop Putta's time (according to Polydore Virgil), was of timber, and was destroyed by fire. In the year 798 the importance of the cathedral at Hereford was increased by the murder of Ethelbert, King of the East Angles, at the palace of Offa, King of Mercia, at South Town (now Sutton Walls), five miles from the city. The young prince had been invited thither by Offa, and was there affianced to Elfrida his daughter, and on the following night was, at the instigation of the Queen Quendreda, cruelly beheaded. His body was first buried at Marden church, but was subsequently removed to Hereford cathedral, and over it was placed a magnificent tomb. After his canonization the cathedral was dedicated to St. Ethelbert and the Virgin Mary and in expiation of his crime, Offa endowed the cathedral with large possessions, which it now enjoys.

Offa, on his return from Rome, whither he went to the Pope for absolution, built the Abbey of St. Albans, and died childless, his son and daughter having predeceased him. On the destruction of Putta's cathedral, which was of timber, a cathedral of stone was erected by Milfrid, and commenced about A.D. 825. Milfrid was viceroy of King Egbert, under whom the seven kingdoms of the Heptarchy were merged into one kingdom. Milfrid raised the necessary funds to erect the church by a tax levied for this purpose. The fabric was dedicated to St. Ethelbert and the Virgin Mary, but it was subsequently destroyed.

Athelstan (1012-1056) rebuilt the cathedral from the foundations; but in 1058 Hereford was burnt by a body of Welsh and Irish, under Aeolfgar, the exiled Earl of Mercia, and the cathedral was left in a state of desolation, and the good bishop was interred within its walls. He was succeeded by the Bishops Leofgar, Walter of Lorraine, and Robert de Losingar, in 1079, who found the cathedral in ruins, and he rebuilt it on the model of the church at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle). The existing choir is regarded as part of his work. The structure was not completed until the episcopate of Reinhelm (1107-1115), who, in an obituary of the Canons of, Hereford, is mentioned as "fundator ecclesiæ S. Ethelberti". But there is no direct proof of the fact.

During the troubles of Stephen's reign, and whilst Robert de Bethune was bishop (1131-1148), the city of Hereford suffered greatly, and the cathedral was desecrated and deserted. The bishop was obliged to take flight in disguise; but upon his return he "cleansed and repaired the building". This prelate was succeeded by Gilbert Folliott (1148-1163), Abbot of Gloucester, a most inflexible antagonist of Becket. Whether or not he added to the cathedral is not known. Folliott was annually commemorated in the Canons of Hereford as one who "multa bona contulit Herefordiensi capitulo".

Giles de Bruce, or de Braose, bishop from 1200 to 1215, is said to have rebuilt the central tower and west front of the cathedral; the latter fell to the ground on Easter Monday, 1786. This portion was replaced by Mr. James Wyatt, whose design may be pronounced to be a sad disfigurement of the sacred fabric. Thomas Cantilupe (1275-1282), the last Englishman canonized before the Reformation, and styled St. Thomas of Hereford, conferred distinguished honour on the see; was Chancellor of England under Henry III. in 1265, and died on August 25, 1282, at Orvieto, on his return from Rome. The northern transept was enlarged, and very probably altogether rebuilt, during the episcopacy of Richard Swinfield (1283-1317), and the remains of Cantilupe were removed to it in 1287. In the same prelate's time, the cloisters and upper portion of the choir, the central tower above the roof, and the eastern transept as it now exists, were either completed or were in progress.

The original cathedral of Bishop Athelstan appears to have comprised only the nave and its aisles, and the choir and north and south transepts. When the ancient chapter-house, once the glory of the edifice, was erected, is uncertain. This splendid appendage to the church was on the south side, occupying the site of the garden now lying between the college cloisters and bishop's cloisters. It fell into decay during the Parliamentary wars of Charles L, and was finally demolished by Bishop Bisse, 1713-1716. The present small chapter-house was formerly the treasury.

The principal additions which have been made subsequently to the cathedral are the Ladye Chapel (1230-1250), under Bishop Maidstone and Peter d'Acquablanca; to which is attached the chapel by Bishop Audley, about 1493, in the Decorated style; also the north porch by Bishop Booth (1516-1534), in the Late Perpendicular style. He, during his lifetime, erected his own tomb under a pointed arch in the north wall of the nave. The porch, which forms the grand entrance, is constructed with four clusters of small pillars, supporting the same number of pointed arches, one leading into the cathedral, and the other three opening into the churchyard. The columns, which are 6 feet high, rise 12 feet from the level of their capitals to the crown of the arch, making it pointed and lofty. The capitals are plain and circular, and divided into several laminæ gradually decreasing in their circumference from that which is above. The three principal mouldings of the arch leading into the cathedral are curiously sculptured with the representations of men and animals.

At the south-east angle of this ancient porch is a small circular tower with a winding staircase, which, reaching above the parapet, terminates in pediments ornamented with crockets at the sides, and the heads of animals on the top. Bishop Audley's chapel has a vaulted roof groined with stone, and divided by small ribs into various compartments, the ground of which is painted blue, and the ribs red with gilt edges; in the centre orb is a representation of the Virgin Mary, gilt, and surrounded with a glory of the same; the others are decorated with foliage and various appropriate ornaments. The Gothic screen is painted and gilt, and on it are nineteen figures of saints and angels, placed in niches under canopies, the whole being well executed in stone.

Bishop Stanbury's chapel (1453-1474), in the north-eastern aisle of the choir, contains two windows under obtuse arches, similar to those on the north and east sides of the smaller transept, on the northern summit of which transept is a low cross. The bishop's cloisters, of which only two sides now remain, built about 1450, in the Perpendicular style, connect the garden of the bishop's palace with the cathedral. The west side was destroyed in the reign of King Edward VI., and a grammar school erected on the site; but this, having the appearance of approaching ruin, was taken down about the year 1760, and a large building, partly of brick and partly of stone, was erected by subscription on the spot, under the arrangement that, in addition to the uses of a school, it should be applied to the triennial meetings of the three choirs of Hereford, Worcester, and Gloucester, and to other public purposes, in consequence of which it was called the music-room.

Attached to the cathedral also is the college of priest-vicars, which, with its cloisters, spacious hall, and quadrangle, was erected between 1462 and 1472. Besides the apartments for the vicars, it has a small chapel and library. It comprises a capitular body, presided over by its own custos and members, and distinct from the dean and chapter of the cathedral itself.

The general plan of the present edifice is that of a cross, with a smaller transept towards the east end. The length of the building is about 335 feet, and the height of the nave 90 feet. At the intersection of the nave and transept is a massive square tower 138 feet high, which had formerly a spire of timber upon it, cased with lead, and rising 92 feet above the battlements; but this was taken down during the repairs, in order to relieve the arches of the tower from so much superincumbent weight. The great transept presents an irregular appearance, its north end being more spacious than the south; yet the additional building now used as the chapter-house gives it a symmetrical appearance.

Several styles of architecture prevail throughout the building, affording good examples of each. In the southern transept (a portion of Athelstan's church) is preserved much of its early Norman character. The pillars and bays of the nave, and the interior of the choir, are Norman. The ladye chapel (now fitted up as the parish church of St. John the Baptist) is in the Lancet or Pointed style, similar to the chancel and ladye chapel of Dore Abbey church, and the north transept may be considered a perfect specimen of the Geometrical style. "The Ladye Chapel", says Mr. Gough, "was probably erected by the lady whose tomb is in its north wall, whose husband, as appears by the arms, was a Bohun, though not an Earl of Hereford". The ancient painting under the arch shows the lady in a nun's veil, as on the tomb, with a church in her hand, pointing to a chapel at the east end, which she presents to the Virgin on her throne; the secular priests (of Hereford, no doubt) are following her; the effigy of her husband, which lies on an adjoining tomb, represents him in close armour, with the hands clasped on the breast, and a dog at his feet; over him is a stone canopy, richly sculptured in the Pointed style; and in the front of the canopy are two human figures sitting, one holding a globe and a scroll, and the other with the hands clasped as in prayer. Underneath the ladye chapel is a fine crypt (Early English, circa 1220), which is 60 feet long and consists of a nave and aisles, and is approached by a porch, having descending steps entering from the north side of the cathedral.

Between the years 1786 and 1840 no material alterations were made in the cathedral. About the latter year was commenced the restoration of the ladye chapel, great central tower internally, the choir, and north transept, at the instance and under the zealous supervision of the then dean, the Very Rev. John Merewether, D.D., who died in 1850. He was succeeded in his dignity and valuable labours by the Very Rev. Richard Dawes, M.A., who, as dean, was fortunate enough to be a witness of their completion in June 1863.

The choir is well-proportioned and lofty, containing fifty oak stalls with ornamental canopies, and under the seats are carved various grotesque and ludicrous devices and figures. On the south side of the choir is a large and fine-toned organ. The altar, which presents an elegant appearance, is approached by a flight of seven steps. The metallic rood screen, separating the choir from the nave and transepts, but projecting about 3 feet from the eastern piers of the tower towards the nave, as the largest and finest piece of architectural metal-work ever executed, will to most visitors be the main feature of interest in the church, and is the second great work of the kind produced in England. It was manufactured by Messrs. Skidmore of Coventry, from designs furnished by Mr. (now Sir) George Gilbert Scott, R.A., and was exhibited at the International Exhibition, 1862.

The screen consists of five main arches, each subdivided by a slender shaft. The central arch, wider and higher than the rest, forms the entrance, and is surmounted by a lofty gable, on the summit of which is a cross. Panels of tracery fill in the lower part of the arches on either side of the entrance to the height of about 4 feet. The heads of the arches and the spandrels between them are enriched with elaborate tracery, chiefly formed by flowers and leafage. In the tympanum above the shaft which divides the arch of entrance, is a bronze figure of our Saviour, with hands outstretched in blessing. At either side, on brackets supported by the pillars of the main arch, are adoring angels, two in each group. Single figures of angels with instruments of music are placed on brackets at the terminations of the screen, north and south.

It was desired to render the screen not only an object of archaic interest, and of fitness for its destination, but to express in it the metallic characteristic of this age. For this purpose various manipulations peculiar to the present day have found their place, and stand side by side with the revival of ancient art workmanship, the result being entirely successful. The beauty of the foliated capitals, in which fine effects of light and shade are produced, and of the foliage and flowers in other parts of the screen, is very great, and every band and line of ornament deserve notice. The forms of both leafage and flowers are to a certain extent conventional, but may be easily recognised; the passion and everlasting flowers especially have been much used, and with admirable effect. On the whole, it may safely be said that this screen is the finest and most complete work of its class which has been produced in recent times; nor would it be easy to mention any piece of ancient metal-work extant, at least on so large a scale, which will bear comparison with it.

The height of the canopy is 22 feet, that of the central arches 16 feet; the gable, which forms an angle of 45 degrees, 28 feet; and the summit of the cross, which is on the same level as the lowest portion of the corona hanging immediately before it, 34 feet. The breadth of the screen is 36 feet. At the rear of the tympanum containing the statue of Christ is the monogram I.H.S. The screen is wrought by hand throughout; brass is used for the shafts of the smaller columns and parts of the larger, and copper in the capitals, figures, and cornice. The iron-work forming the foliage, as well as some of the brass-work, is painted; but no colours have been employed excepting those of the oxides of the metals used: the copper is left throughout of its natural colour. Upwards of five tons of iron are used in the solid constructional work, and about three tons more in the ornamental portions. The weight of brass and copper used in the decoration of the columns, capitals, cornices, and fittings of the arches exceeded 4,500 lbs.; and the various-coloured mosaics are composed of more than 50,000 pieces of ironstone, marble, and vitreous substances. The upper portion consists of a strong framework of oak.

The polished stones, of which there are about 300, form an interesting collection of marble, spars, and petrifactions. The gates of the choir, which occupy the central arches of the screen to the height of 5 feet, consist of iron scrollwork, in which is mounted much brass ornament, consisting of entwined stems, vine leaves, and bosses. A horizontal brass tablet bears the inscription Gloria in Excelsis; and on the reverse side, facing the altar, appear the words Laus Deo.

The corona, or corona-lucis, suspended from the centre of the tower, occupies an important place, and is the main feature in the lighting of the cathedral. The circlet of the crown sheds a soft and diffused light down upon the screen; and the standards surrounding the circle, which consist of groups of light enveloping a mass of crystals, produce a singular and gem-like appearance, suggestive of jewels on a crown, whilst serving the practical purpose of illuminating the upper part of the tower. It is suspended from the central stem by stay-bars, secured from lateral deflection by the arches and banding to which they are united. The whole is suspended by the central tube and tie-rods, which are calculated to support 16, tons, more than eight times the weight of the corona.

The cathedral contains the tombs and other memorials of more bishops and deans than any similar structure in England. It also possesses several fine brasses, and a few examples of (ancient) stained glass. Mr. Duncumb, alluding to the brasses, says some "were accidentally sold among the old materials disposed of after the general repairs in 1786; the last, which in a considerable degree might have supplied the want of appropriate decorations in the new part of the church, were fortunately rescued from the furnace by a friend of the Arts, and are now placed in the collection of Richard Gough, Esq."

Among those monuments that remain, one of the most celebrated is that to the memory of Bishop Cantilupe, who died in the year 1282, and is said to have been the last Englishman who obtained the honour of canonization, which took place in the year 1310. This tomb, from the reputed sanctity of the bishop, was visited by pilgrims and travellers from all parts of Europe, and is still regarded with veneration by the Roman Catholics; it is composed of freestone, in the shape of an altar, and is placed under a low stone canopy supported by arches, resting on low circular pillars having square capitals; round this tomb are fourteen small full-length effigies of knights in armour bearing shields. Matthew of Westminster relates that 163 miracles were performed at this tomb in a short period; indeed, so great was the reputation which he had obtained, that the succeeding Bishops of Hereford waived their ancient arms in order to assume the paternal coat of Cantilupe, which has been continued to the present day.

In the arches of the walls in the passage on the east side of the choir are altar monuments of various bishops, with their effigies episcopally habited. The faces of all the figures have been much mutilated. In modern stained windows it has memorials to Archbishop Musgrave, Bishop Huntingford, Dean Merewether, Archdeacon Lane Freer, Canon Morgan, Canon Clutton, Mr. Hunt, and Lieutenant Arkwright. The great geometrical window, one of the largest of its style in the United Kingdom, was erected in 1864 by Messrs. Hardman, of Birmingham, at a cost of £1,300, defrayed by public subscription.

The cathedral library is rich in ancient manuscripts, illuminated missals, and Bibles. The archive-room, which occupies the upper story of the Cantilupe aisle, is used as the library. It contains about 2,000 volumes, mostly in Latin, of which 236 are MSS., with their original chains, the oldest of these being an Anglo-Saxon copy of the four gospels, bequeathed by Athelstan (1012-56), the last Saxon bishop of this see; and the most valuable, a nearly perfect copy of the Hereford Use, or Liturgy performed in this diocese, 1265. There are also a handsomely bound copy of the original Wickliffe Bible; other Bibles, from 1480 to 1690; Gersonis Opera, 1494; Hartmanni Chroncon, 1493; Higden's Polychronicon, with additions by William Caxton, 1495; Legenda Aurea, 1483, by Caxton; a very early printed book, "Lyndewodus super Constitutiones Provinciales", a volume relating to the Mass (one of the earliest printed books), 1475; Ptolomæi Geographia, 1486.

Besides the cathedral archives, many curious relics of past ages, including oak chests and fragments of brasses and stonework, interesting to the antiquary, are likewise preserved here. The poet Southey wrote his ballad, "The Old Woman of Berkeley", after being locked up in the library for several mornings, during which he perused "Matthew of Westminster" and the "Nuremberg Chronicle". There is also, in good preservation, a remarkable map, on thick vellum, of the 13th century, by Richard de Haldingham and Lafford (Haldingham cum Sleaford) in Lincolnshire, representing the world before the discovery of America. This great curiosity was discovered under a pile of lumber some years ago; it is illuminated with gilt Saxon letters, and the various places appear to be marked by animals, houses, &c.; but the whole design cannot be traced, being so thickly covered with dirt, and partly obliterated. Except one in the Vatican, it is the most ancient map in existence. The frame in which it is placed is ornamented with foliage in the Pointed style, and had formerly shutters to protect it from being injured.

The effect of the restoration of the cathedral church, begun under the auspices of Dean Merewether in the year 1840, and finished under the guidance of Dean Dawes in 1863, has been such as to render the interior one of the most beautiful in England, and exhibiting fine examples of the Norman, Early English, Decorated, and Geometrical styles of architecture. The cathedral was restored under the superintendence of that celebrated ecclesiastical architect, Sir George Gilbert Scott, R.A., and the re-opening took place on June 30th, 1863. It has evidently been the aim of the architect closely to carry out the designs of the original builders, so that nothing may be left in the least inharmonious or incompatible with the various styles employed. Bishop Booth's porch, the north and south-east transepts, the Ladye chapel, the cloisters, Audley chapel, and other parts of the building, were all in more or less advanced stages of decay, now happily arrested.

The walls and vaulting of the interior have also been restored wherever necessary, and the numerous coats of whitewash, which obscured the beauty of much ornamental detail, entirely removed. Nor must we omit to mention the encaustic tile pavements, laid down throughout the church from the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott, and manufactured to that gentleman's entire satisfaction by Mr. William Godwin, of Lugwardine, near this city. The fine old peal of ten bells have been re-hung, and floors and other appliances necessary for the ringers added. The cost of the restoration (£48,591) was defrayed by funds raised principally by public subscription.

The beautiful stained windows (about forty) contributed during the last thirty years, the altar table, reredos, and spandrel, with the great Norman arch in the choir, are fine additions to the fabric. The Cantilupe shrine, christening font, St. Ethelbert's pyx, the ancient map of the world, and the library of ancient manuscripts, are highly interesting to historians and archaeologists, and attract many visitors to the church.

The see of Hereford was one of the richest and most extensive in England until the time of Bishop Cantilupe (13th century), when it suffered very considerable losses, and occasioned the journey of that prelate to Rome, to ask the assistance of the Pope in recovering his former possessions. The Bishop of Hereford originally held upwards of twenty rich manors in the county, and in Worcestershire, with palaces at Hereford, Ross, Worcester, Sugwas, and Whitbourne, also a residence and property near London. The income of the see has in later days been much reduced by the bishops themselves, in granting concurrent leases on the failure of the lives, and so receiving large premiums, but securing only nominal yearly rents, thus interfering materially with the incomes of their successors.

The bishop has the patronage of four canonries, the precentor, chancellors of the church and diocese, treasurer, twenty-eight prebendal stalls in the cathedral, and thirty-two benefices in the diocese. The dean and chapter of the cathedral appoint the prælector, six vicars choral of the college, seven assistant-vicars, the masters of the hospital at Ledbury, and St. Ethelbert's hospital, Hereford; the masters of the cathedral school, four Langfordian scholars, eight choristers, and the inferior officers of the church. They also have the patronage of twenty-two benefices. The custos and vicars choral are impropriators of the parish of Westbury-upon-Severn, and appoint the vicar.

The bishop's palace, an ancient building, is pleasantly situated on the northern bank of the river Wye; there is nothing in its outward appearance by any means prepossessing, though many of the apartments are fitted up in the most costly manner; the gardens, which occupy a gentle declivity towards the river, are very extensive. The Deanery was enlarged and completely restored in 1867 by the present dean (the Hon. and Very Rev. George Herbert, M.A.) The prebendal houses exhibit nothing worthy of remark. Previous to the year 1791 the cathedral yard was used as the burial-ground for all the parishes in the city, and for many of the suburban districts; but now the city parishes have each provided distinct places of interment, to which has been added a cemetery at Broomy hill. The following enumeration of the officers and members of the cathedral, with other particulars, is taken from a report of the cathedral commissioners:-

"The corporation aggregate at the present time consists of the bishop, the dean, the precentor, four canons residentiary, the prælector, two archdeacons, twenty-four prebendaries, the chancellor of the choir, treasurer, sub-treasurer, and sub-chanter, six vicars-choral, four of whom are minor canons, six lay-vicars, an organist, a schoolmaster, and five minor officers. The term of residence prescribed to the canons by statute is thirteen weeks, during which attendance at all the cathedral services is strictly enjoined. The vicars-choral, originally twelve in number, are now reduced to six, appointed by the dean and chapter; as a corporate body they hold certain estates, and are entitled to £12 138. 4d. annually, each member also receiving twenty-six bushels of wheat from the chapter revenues. Each of the lay-vicars receives from £55 to £65 per annum (according to the period of his attendance), of which the dean and chapter contribute £10, and the custos and vicars £40. There are eight choristers and two probationers; two of the former receive, besides their education fee, a yearly stipend of £6 15s. each, and an allowance for clothing; six of them are paid out of the chapter funds, and the remaining two by the custos and vicars. There are no beadsmen, as in the case of Worcester and several other cathedrals. The dean and chapter annually hold their audits on the Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday after the 5th of November".

The ancient parish churches, in and contiguous to the city of Hereford, up to the civil wars in the reign of Charles I., were All Saints', St. Peter's, St. Nicholas', St. Owen's, and St. Martin's. The two last mentioned were destroyed in the troublesome times alluded to. Public worship for the inhabitants of the sixth parish, St. John Baptist, appears from time immemorial to have been performed within the Cathedral church. The church of St. Owen was situate without St. Owen's gate, and St. Martin's church (consecrated by Bishop Orleton in 1325) stood without the city walls at the foot of Wye bridge, near the spot now frequently covered in the spring of the year with bark ticks. Holmer church may also be included in the city churches, as a large portion of the parish is within its liberties. The original parish church of St. Nicholas, which was taken down about the year 1840, stood at the head of King street, in the centre of St. Nicholas square. Thus, previously to its removal, and entering the city from Wye bridge, a church stood at the end of each principal street, viz., Bridge street, King street, Broad street, and St. Owen's street.

All Saints' Church, situated at the top of Eign street, is a massive structure, comprising nave, chancel, two aisles, and a tower at the north-west angle of the church, surmounted by a spire, the height of both being 225 feet. The tower contains eight bells, clock, and chimes which play every third hour. The church is supposed to have been built about the year 1400, or perhaps a little earlier. Two buttresses sustain the tower, which overhangs its base considerably. The spire has fallen into such decay that it has become dangerous, and it has been recently proposed to restore the entire edifice, at an estimated cost of about £6,000. To the front (south) of the church, open to Broad street, a decorated porch is attached, which leads to the vestibule and vestry.

In the chancel are ten beautifully carved oak stalls (in open work) which belonged to the brethren of St. Anthony. The church also possesses a valuable library, bequeathed to the parish by William Brewster, M.A., who died in 1715. The parish of All Saints, originally a chapelry annexed to the parish of St. Martin, on the south of the river Wye, as was also that of St. Peter (Upper Bullingham), but afterwards a vicarage in the gift of the Crown, was presented by Henry III. in 1249 to the master and brethren of St. Anthony's hospital at Vienna, a converted synagogue; but being alien, it was seized during the wars with France, and finally granted by Edward II. to the dean and canons of Windsor, in whose patronage it still continues. The vicarage is worth about £300 yearly, and is held by the Rev. Richard Underwood, M.A., of St. John's College, Oxford, who was instituted in 1859, and is also prebendary of Colwall in the cathedral.

St. Peter's Church, situated at the junction of St. Peter street, Union street, and St. Owen street, is the oldest and largest parochial church in Hereford. It was founded in 1070 by Walter de Lacy, an adherent of the Conqueror. He was accidentally killed on the completion of the work in 1085, by a fall from the battlements. In 1101 the church was given by his son, Hugh de Lacy, to the abbey of St. Peter at Gloucester, in consequence of which donation the clergy of St. Cuthbert's chapel, within the castle of Hereford, which his father had established there, removed to the site of the present county gaol, where they founded St. Guthlac's priory. The church consists of a nave, chancel, side aisles, a tower and spire of elegant form and proportions.

The chancel has undergone a complete restoration, and was re-opened January 14th, 1875. An organ chamber has been formed at the back of one of the re-opened arches on the south side, and the instrument, enlarged and improved by Mr. Nicholson, of Worcester, is well heard throughout the church. The beautiful old oak stalls (designed for the use of the brethren of St. Guthlac's priory) are now in use, and the appearance of this fine chancel, which had for so many years been separated from the church by an unsightly organ gallery and glazed screen, reflects great credit upon the architect, William Chick, Esq., of this city.

The advowson of St. Peter's was purchased about forty years since by the Simeon trustees. The living is worth £370 yearly, and is held by the Rev. George Bright Bennett, M.A., of St. John's College, Cambridge, who was instituted in 1870. A new parsonage was erected in 1872. The vicarage of St. Peter is connected with the rectory of St. Owen, the parish church of which was destroyed during the civil wars.

St. Martin's Church is situate on the Ross road, about 1 mile from the centre of the city. The edifice was built in 1845, and is cruciform in structure, with a tower and lofty spire; cost, about £5,000. The late Rev. H.J. Symons, LL.D., for many years vicar of the then united parishes of All Saints and St. Martin's, strenuously laboured for upwards of twenty years to promote the erection of this church, of which he was the vicar up to the time of his death. The interior is neatly fitted up with open pews and galleries, containing 650 sittings, 422 of which are free; there is also a small organ. In the chancel is a beautiful stained glass window. The living is a vicarage, value £300, in the patronage of the Dean and Canons of Windsor, and held by the Rev. George Henry Kirwood, M.A., of St. Bees College, who was instituted in 1857. By Order in Council of the 19th May, and duly registered in the registry of. the diocese of Hereford 7th June, 1866, the townships of Lower Bullinghope and Grafton were separated from the parish of St. Martin, and annexed, for ecclesiastical purposes only, to the parish of Upper Bullinghope.

St. Nicholas' Church, situated at the junction of Victoria street and The Friars, was-erected in 1842, from designs by Mr. Thomas Duckam, architect. It contains a nave, aisles, chancel, and massive square tower, the cost of which amounted to about £4,000. The tower contains six good bells, which were removed from the old church. The organ is a fine-toned instrument. The living is a rectory; value, £300; patron, the Lord Chancellor; rector, Rev. Samuel Holmes, B.A., of St. John's College, Cambridge, who was instituted in 1871.

St. John Baptist Church appears to have been always an appendage to the cathedral. The Ladye chapel, recently restored to its ancient beauty, and forming one of the most interesting features in the sacred edifice, dedicated to St. Ethelbert and St. Mary, is now devoted to that purpose. Previous to 1863 the north end of the greater transept, called St. Catherine's aisle, was appropriated to the parochial church of St. John Baptist. The living is in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Hereford; rentcharge, £75, augmented by Ecclesiastical Commissioners to the net value of £300, exclusive of interest of £1,500 (3 per cent.) for parsonage house; vicar, Rev. John Goss, M.A., of Exeter College, Oxford, who was instituted in 1860, and is also custos of the college of vicars choral. The Mortuary chapel at Blackmarstone was enlarged and fitted up for divine service in 1867 at a cost of about £130. It is designed chiefly for the use of the poor of the district. The Rev. Custos Goss, or his curate, officiates.

St. Paul's Church, Tupsley, was erected in 1864-65 from the designs of F.R. Kempson, Esq., F.I.B.A., of Hereford, at a cost of about £2;300: It was consecrated November 17th, 1865, and supplies a want long felt by the inhabitants of this important and increasing neighbourhood. It is built of stone in the Early English style of architecture, and forms an interesting feature in the landscape. The edifice is 91 feet 3 inches by 5.5 feet 6 inches, and includes nave, chancel, north and south aisles, and tower with spire (100 feet high) at the south-west angle of south aisle. The organ chamber and vestry are on the north side of the chancel. The nave is divided from the aisles on either side by the arcade, which is carried on columns of blue stone, with richly carved capitals of an Early character. The aisles are lighted by windows of two lights with geometrical tracery in the heads, and the chancel is divided from the nave by a large, elegant, and well-proportioned arch; all the roofs are of open timber. The seats are open, free, and unappropriated, and afford accommodation for 530 persons. The pulpit is of stone, and is placed at the north side of nave.

The parish of Tupsley, which is within the liberties of the city, has been formed out of the ancient parish of Hampton Bishop. The living is a vicarage; value, £230, with residence; patron, the Lord Bishop of Hereford; vicar, Rev. Thomas Canning, M.A., of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, who was instituted in 1865.

The church of St. James, Bartonsham, occupies a site a little eastward of the Infirmary, and is in the Early Decorated style, consisting of nave, aisles, transepts, chancel, with aisles (forming organ chamber on north side), sacristy, and south porch. It was erected in 1868-69 from designs by Thomas Nicholson, Esq., F.I.B.A., diocesan architect, at a cost of about £3,900. It is built of Three Elms quarry stone with Bath stone dressings; the interior throughout being ashlared random-ranged Bath stone, axed on the face and set in wide joints, and relieved with bands and voussoirs of blue stone. The roofs are framed with pitch pine, boarded and felted, and covered with Whitland Abbey slates; the timber and boarding being left their natural colour.

The sittings are of pitch pine, varnished over; encaustic tiles are laid throughout; also a very handsome reredos of encaustic tiles (by Godwin), peculiarly rich in colour, and harmonious in design. An organ, by Nicholson of Worcester, was added in 1872. The church is lighted with gas corona and standards, and fitted with Gurney's patent stoves. It will accommodate 600 persons, and the whole of the sittings are free. The south porch is constructed as the substructure of the future tower and spire, embraced in the original design, and estimated to cost, with tower clock, about £1,000; but which, for the present, has been postponed, consequent upon the want of funds. The site was presented by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and the cost of building was defrayed chiefly by subscription raised through the indefatigable exertions of the Rev. John Venn, M.A., who held the living of St. Peter's and St. Owen's for about thirty-seven years, and resigned in 1870.

The district comprises the larger portion of the parish of St. Owen, in which there has of late been a considerable increase of population, and contains about 2,400 people. The church was consecrated May 20, 1869. The living is a vicarage; value of tithe rentcharge, £69 13s. 8d., also an annual augmentation of £244 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners; patrons, the Rev. Charles Simeon's trustees; vicar, Rev. Richard Powell, M.A., of Trinity College, Dublin, who was instituted in 1871.

Besides the various places of worship for the Established Church, several new and beautiful churches and chapels abound in the city and neighbourhood, connected with the Roman Catholic and Dissenting congregations. In Broad street, on the site of an ancient nunnery dedicated to St. Catherine, is the Roman Catholic church, dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. At the sides of the entrance are massive fluted columns similar to those of the Shire hall, surmounted by a pediment and cross. The interior is superbly decorated. The altar is of coloured marble, with gilt mouldings, and supports a representation of the dome of St. Peter's at Rome, beautifully executed in the same material; on each side. are two immense stone candlesticks, with portraits of the Blessed Virgin and St. Francis Xavier, surrounded by a profusion of well-executed colouring and gilding. On the south is a fine statue of the Blessed Virgin and Child, standing on a bracket supported by angels. The building is lighted by a dome in the centre, consisting partly of stained glass, and decorated with silver stars; above is a crucifix. A powerful and well-toned organ is placed in a gallery at the western end; and accommodation is provided for about 500 persons. The Very Rev. Canon Charles Vincent Dolman, O.S.B., is the priest. (The Roman Catholic Pro-Cathedral of Newport and Menevia and Monastery of St. Benedict, at Belmont, near this city, will be found fully described under the head of Clehonger, pp. 125, 126.)

The Congregational (or Independent) chapel is a spacious and elegant structure of stone, situated at Eign brook. It was erected a few years since on the site of a former edifice at a cost of about £3,600. The Baptist chapel is a neat brick building in Commercial road. The Countess of Huntingdon's chapel is in Berrington street. The Wesleyan chapel is in Bridge street, and the Friends' meeting house (erected 1822) in King street. There are also Primitive Methodist chapels in St. Owen street and Clifford street, White Cross road, and Plymouth Brethren meeting rooms at The Barton and St. Owen street.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS.- The Cathedral Grammar School is a very old foundation, being first mentioned in a letter of Bishop Gilbert (1384) as a long-established institution under the supervision of the Chancellor of the Cathedral. In course of time the original endowment proved insufficient for the support of the school, and about the year 1574 a petition was presented to Lord Burghley from the Dean and Chapter of Hereford, requesting that "a free grammar school should be founded there, to serve as commodiously for the training of the youth of South Wales as Shrewsbury did for the youth of North Wales". In consequence of this appeal, statutes were given to the school in 1583, and confirmed (with slight alteration) in the time of Charles I. The school is singularly rich in scholarships and exhibitions, the total amount of these being upwards of £1,000 per annum.

In 1607, Dean Langford bequeathed land to the Dean and Chapter for the maintenance of four scholars at Hereford school. The scholars on this foundation receive a free education, with books and a money payment. In 1615, Roger Philpotts bequeathed his house in Hereford for the maintenance of two scholars at Brasenose College, Oxford: there are now three exhibitions of £50 each on this foundation, and the number will probably be increased in a short time. In 1682 and 1697, Sarah, Duchess of Somerset, founded scholarships for scholars of this school proceeding to Brasenose College, Oxford, and St. John's College, Cambridge. There are now no less than eighteen scholarships and exhibitions upon this foundation, varying in value from £40 to £60 per annum, and tenable for three or more years.

Many eminent men have been educated at this school: among whom are Dr. Smith, Bishop of Gloucester, the celebrated translator of the Bible, who also wrote the preface; Howells, the first royal historiographer; and Gardiner, who received King Charles I. as public orator when that monarch went to hold his court at Oxford, and whose speech upon that occasion is still extant. Twelve choristers and the four dean's scholars are upon the foundation of the school; besides these there are more than 100 day scholars and boarders.

The present head master is the Rev. Francis Henry Tatham, M.A., late scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, and assistant master of Westminster school. There is a Lower school for junior boys, of which the Rev: James Brown, B.A., late scholar of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, is master. The new school buildings were erected in 1875, and are situate at the east end of the cathedral, near the college of vicars choral.

Lord Scudamore's Schools, situate in Friars street, are built of red brick, and are very commodious. These schools were established in 1852, out of funds contributed by the trustees of Lord Scudamore's charity, the Committee of Council on Education, and the National Society. The whole of the income of Lord Scudamore's charity, amounting to about £160 annually, is devoted to their maintenance. The management of the schools is vested in a committee of gentlemen elected annually by the trustees of the charity. The funds of the charity originated in a sum of £400, bequeathed by Viscount Scudamore, in the reign of Charles II., for the purpose of setting the poor people of Hereford to work. As no rational scheme could be devised for the employment of the funds in conformity with the intention of the donor, they were allowed to accumulate, and eventually an Act of Parliament was obtained, enabling the trustees to devote the annual income to educational purposes. They are conducted, on the National system. The average attendance is about 260; viz., 140 boys and 120 girls and infants.

The Blue Coat School, situated in Blue School street, in the parish of St. Peter, is a red brick building. It has room for 316 scholars; the total number on the books is 268; viz., boys, 153 (average attendance, 121); girls, 115 (average attendance, 90). The school is under government inspection, and has a certificated master and mistress.

St. Peter's National School, in Union street, affords accommodation to about 500 children. A new infants' school-room was built in 1872, and the old room converted into a class-room, at a cost of £740. All Saints' Schools, in Widemarsh street, were erected by subscription, and opened in February 1871. They are now closed for want of funds. St. John Baptist Schools were enlarged in 1871 at a cost of £750, and are now capable of accommodating 320 children. St. Martin's Boys' School was built in 1872 at a cost of nearly £300. There is room for about 200 children in the schools belonging to this parish. St. James' (formerly St. Owen's) Infant School, in St. Owen street, was erected in 1838. It was enlarged in 1874, at a cost of £150, to meet the requirements of the Education Department. Through the kindness of the vicar (Rev. R. Powell) this building is used as a night school by the Herefordshire Militia during their annual training. Books, periodicals, &c., are supplied by the officers of the regiment. St. Nicholas' Infant School is in Friars street; average attendance, about 80.

St. Paul's National School, Tupsley, was erected in 1868, at a cost of £960, from the designs of F. R. Kempson, Esq., F.I.B.A. Accommodation is provided for about 100 children. New schools were built at Widemarsh, in the parish of Holmer, in 1873, at a cost of £1,100, exclusive of the value of the site. About 150 children receive instruction at these schools. The Roman Catholic School is at the rear of the church in Broad street; average attendance of boys and girls, about 70. There is also a small school in Berrington street conducted by the Sisters of Charity. The accommodation required for elementary education in the city of Hereford is about 3,200, but as there is a deficiency of about 430, it has been proposed to establish a school board.

HOSPITALS AND CHARITIES.- Hereford is prolific in hospitals, and in round numbers the total produce of the charities may be said to be about £4,000 per annum. The Coningsby (or Red Coat) Hospital was founded in 1614 by Sir Thomas and Lady Coningsby, on the site of a small building and chapel, formerly belonging to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem. This hospital is the only private military order in England. It is endowed with estates in Leicestershire, and is further supported by a rent charge, value £200 per annum, upon the Hampton Court estate, in this county. It was founded for the reception of two most valuable characters in society - the worn-out soldier, and the superannuated faithful servant - and consists of a corporal, chaplain, and ten servitors; the corporal, or president, who collects the rents, &c., has £20 per annum, and is allowed to marry, and each of the servitors has £1 ls. monthly.

The building is constructed in the form of a quadrangle, and consists of twelve apartments, a chapel, hall, and suitable appurtenances; over the door, in the centre of the hospital, are two small Ionic pillars, enclosing a tablet with the Coningsby arms. The owner in fee of Hampton Court (John Hungerford Arkwright, Esq.) is considered, and styled, the commander of the hospital, and the servitors are to address him by that title only, in memory of those worthy governors who once presided over the military society in this place. The vicarage of Bodenham was directed by a codicil in the will of the founder to be given to the successive chaplains. The Rev. Henry Arkwright, M.A., is the chaplain, and the Rev. Richard Underwood, M.A. (vicar of All Saints'), the deputy chaplain.

St. Ethelbert's Hospital, situated in Castle street, was originally built and endowed about the year 1231, by means of indulgences and relaxations of penance, granted by the Bishops of Hereford, Coventry, Salisbury, and Ely, to those who contributed towards erecting and supporting it. In consequence of the edifice having become ruinous, it was rebuilt by the Dean and Chapter in 1805, and is a neat stone building in the Gothic style of architecture. The revenues of this foundation are applied to the maintenance of ten persons, whose appointment is in the master; they are usually given to women, who must be poor, aged, and of good characters. The Right Hon. and Ven. Lord Saye and Sele, D.C.L., is the master.

Trinity, or Kerry's Hospital, in Commercial street, was founded by Thomas Kerry, Esq., of Sherefield court, in the county of Kent, A.D. 1600, for a corporal and two unmarried men, and twelve poor widows, to be nominated, after the decease of the founder, by his issue, and on failure of such issue, by the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of Hereford, by whom its concerns are at present administered. The present building was erected in 1825, on the site of the former hospital, at a cost of about £880, part of which was obtained by public subscription, £100 being given by the corporation of the city, and a legacy of Thomas Russell, Esq., late town clerk, which amounted to the handsome sum of £449 5s., free of duty.

St. Giles's Hospital, for five poor men, is situate at St. Owen's gate, and is one of the most ancient in the city, having been originally founded in the year 1290, for Friars Grisey, or Savignian monks. It afterwards became the property of the Knights Templars, and being seized by the Crown, was given by Richard II. to the city, and appropriated to the purpose of an almshouse. It was rebuilt by voluntary subscription in 1770, Josias Clerke, Esq., being then custos. There are five houses, with a piece of garden-ground attached to each. Adjacent is the chapel of St. Giles, in which divine service is held twice weekly. The Rev. Richard Powell, M.A., vicar of St. James', has been recently appointed the chaplain. Williams' Hospital adjoins St. Giles', and was erected by Mr. Richard Williams, an attendant on Lord Cobbam. It is built of brick, and affords accommodation for six poor men. The following inscription is on the building:-

"Mr. Williams' Hospitall rebuilt 1675. Bridstock
Harford of ye Citty Esq., being then Custos
of the same, and A good Benefactor
Feare God
Honor ye King
Relieve ye Poor
Hæc tria sent omnia".

This hospital, as well as St. Giles', is governed by the mayor and corporation.

Price's Hospital, White Cross street, was founded by Mr. William Price, citizen and merchant of London, in the year 1636; but he dying before the building was completed, it was ordered by the Chancellor of the Marches of Wales to be carried on, under the care of the mayor and aldermen of Hereford. This hospital provides accommodation for twelve aged freemen of the city; and has a chapel attached. The Rev. William R. Jenkins, M.A., is the chaplain.

Lazarus, or Sick Man's Hospital, in White Cross road, contains apartments for six poor widows. The foundation-stone of this building was laid by the Right Hon. Lady Emily Foley, of Stoke Edith park, April 10th, 1849.

Lingen's Hospital, White Crossroad, for six poor widows, was founded about the year 1640, by Jane, widow of William Shelley, Esq., and sole heiress of John Lingen, Esq. It was rebuilt in the year 1801.

Johnson's Almshouses, in Commercial road, are for twelve poor widows whose husbands have died in either of the above hospitals. This charity was founded in 1863, until which period there was no provision for the widows of the deceased occupiers of the hospitals under the control of the Hereford municipal charity trustees. John Lambe, Esq., of 35 Bridge street, is secretary to the municipal charities. (For list of trustees see page 244.

Aubrey's Almshouses, 13 to 18 Berrington street, are for six poor women. The Aubrey charity is of very ancient foundation, and is under the management of twelve trustees appointed by the Charity Commissioners, viz., Charles Anthony, Esq., Edward Abley, Esq., Francis Lewis Bodenbam, Esq., Frederick Bodenham, Esq., Henry Child. Beddoe, Esq., Edwin Edward Bosley, Esq., Thomas Cam, Esq., George Bobart Hanbury, Esq., Rev. Samuel Holmes, James Cleife Lane, Esq., James Frederick Symonds, Esq., and Walter Williams, Esq. The clerk to the charity is James Davies, Esq., of 132 Widemarsh street.

First and foremost of the charitable institutions proper must be noted the Musical Festivals, held in rotation in the cities of Hereford, Gloucester, and Worcester. They originated in 1724, and the collections are devoted to the relief of the widows and orphans of the clergy of the three dioceses. One-third of the Hereford portion is given to the archdeaconry of Ludlow. Although the original meetings consisted of the gentlemen of the choirs only, yet the improved taste of the times has required the service of the best professional performers. The 153rd meeting of the three choirs will be held in the cathedral on September 12th and three following days; George Townshend Smith, Esq., conductor. The benefit conferred on the widows and orphans of the clergy, in the three dioceses, may be estimated by the fact that, during the last ten years, considerably more than £10,000 have been distributed and thankfully received. Hereford is one of the twenty-four cities and towns entitled to share, in its turn, in White's charity, which is £100 yearly, lent in sums of £25 each to four young freemen for ten years, free of interest.

The Herefordshire society in London was established in 1710, to apprentice poor children, natives of this county, to some trade, and afterwards to establish them in business.

The Hereford Society for Aiding the Industrious is one of the greatest boons to the poor that the city possesses. The Rev. John Venn, formerly vicar of St. Peter's in this city, was one of the originators of the society, and still takes an active part in its management, and his efforts are supplemented by those of several prominent townsmen, who also take great interest in it. This society seeks to help the industrious:- (1) By a provident bank for receiving sums, however small: (2) By letting allotments of land for garden ground: (3) By opening a soup kitchen in severe weather at one penny per quart: (4) By lending sums from £1 to £15, at an interest of 10d. in the pound: (5) Letting out various articles of comforts for invalids at a small weekly sum: (6) By selling at the lowest price bedroom furniture, the articles being supplied and paid for by weekly instalments: (7) By receiving deposits of money from the charitable, and spending it for the benefit of those who bring tickets from depositors, unless known to be unworthy objects: (8) By selling to the working classes good flour as nearly as possible at cost price, manufactured at the society's own steam corn mill : (9) By baths amply supplied with hot and cold water - 1st class at 8d., 2nd class at 4d., 3rd class at 2d., and children 1d.; and also vapour and sulphur baths: (10) By a large swimming bath, opened November, 1871.

In addition to the above, there are in connection with the society a pig and poultry farm, model cottages and gardens, and a scientific school of husbandry on Moule's dry-earth system. Mr. George Henry With, F.R.A.S., is the scientific secretary to the society. The liberality and intelligence of the inhabitants are pleasingly manifested in the support which is given to the numerous charitable, literary, and scientific institutions belonging to the city. Among the societies, clubs, institutions, &c., may be noticed a Philharmonic society (with H. Leslie, Esq., as honorary conductor), a chamber of agriculture, rose show, naturalists' field club, young men's Christian association, land and building society, rifle corps, &c.

PUBLIC BUILDINGS, INSTITUTIONS, ETC.- Foremost amongst the public buildings is the Shire Hall, situated near the east end of St. Peter's church, at the junction of St. Peter street, Union street, and St. Owen street. It was erected in 1815, and opened for the assizes in 1818. It is an interesting and noble building, worthy alike of the county and Sir Robert Smirke, the architect, under whose direction and the able superintendence of Mr. Heather, builder, of this town, it was completed in the above year. The portico, of stone, is supported by eight fluted pillars in the Grecian-Doric style (copied from the Temple of Theseus at Athens), resting on a flight of steps, and surmounted by a pediment; three plain doors lead into the entrance-hall, terminating with a flight of steps leading to the county hall, and from the entrance-hall are passages to the courts of law, apartments for the judges, grand jury, record rooms, &c.

The assizes and quarter sessions, also county petty sessions and county courts, are held here, the latter three times monthly; here are also offices for the county officials, chief constable of the county, clerk of the peace, county surveyor, &c. The first estimate for building this handsome structure was £46,000; but in consequence of subsequent additions, it reached £52,000. It occupies an acre of ground. On a granite pedestal, in front of the building, is a bronze statue, executed by Baron Marochetti, to the memory of Sir George Cornewall Lewis, Bart. It bears the following inscription:-

A wise and honest statesman; a profound scholar; a kind and firm friend;
M.P. for the county of Hereford from 1847 to 1852;
Chief Steward of the City;
Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1855 to 1858; Home Secretary from 1859 to 1860;
Secretary for War from 1860 to 1863. Born 1806. Died 1863.

The county hall, in which concerts, &c., are held, is a great ornament to the city, being spacious and lofty, and well suited to the purposes to which it is applied. It is decorated with portraits of the late King George III. (by Devis), the late Duke of Norfolk (by Lonsdale), the late Sir John Geers Cotterell, Bart. (by Pickersgill), and a bust (by Thomas) of Joseph Bailey, Esq., late M.P. for the county, and son of the late Sir Joseph Bailey, Bart., of Glan-Usk park, Breconshire. The dimensions of this hall (including orchestra) are 100 feet long, 48 feet broad, and 36 feet high. The grand concerts during the triennial music meetings are held in this room. The county library, at the Shire Hall, contains all the Acts of Parliament; also numerous MSS. and reports of all cases argued in the Courts of Queen's Bench, Exchequer, and Common Pleas.

The Hereford County and City Lunatic Asylum is a very large establishment situate in the parish of Burghill, about 3 miles N.W. of the city. (For detailed account of the building see Burghill, page 115.)

The Hereford Free Library and Museum owes its origin to James Rankin, Esq., of Bryngwyn, in this county, who with great munificence has founded the institution practically at his own cost. He it was who bought the site, which alone cost something like £2,000; and it is at his sole cost that the library and museum buildings are carried out. The only part of the edifice, as it now is, that is not given by him is the basement-story in the main block fronting to Broad street, the cost of which is borne by the town council. Having purchased the site, the donor's intention was, originally, to lay out only some £3,000 in the erection of the building. But, determined while about it to make the fabric really worthy of the city and of the prominent situation it was to occupy, be subsequently increased his gift by another £1,000 (making £6,000 in all), the town council contributing then another £1,000 for the inclusion in the plan of two shops in the basement, adding by one story to the height of the main building, and so giving it a more imposing appearance than it would otherwise have had.

The objects of the founder are:- 1. To provide a free library for the people of Hereford, to be open at all hours during which it was likely to be used; the same to be provided with books of an instructive as well as of an amusing character. 2. To provide a museum where objects of natural history and scientific interest, arranged in systematic order, might be preserved, with a view to popular instruction; and wherein, also, scientific meetings might be held, and lectures on literary and scientific subjects delivered. It was resolved that a rate of one penny in the pound should be made by the council from the time when such premises were opened.

An arcade of five arches occupies the entire ground-floor frontage of the building. The centre archway leads to a lobby entrance and staircase-hall, off which, on the ground-floor, are the reading-room and librarian's offices, and on the first floor the museum and Woolhope Club-room. The two rooms on the ground-floor fronting the street are for the present let as shops, but they are designed for use as class-rooms in connection with the institution. The reading-room and library occupy a large building at the back of the main block fronting Broad street, and separated from it by the staircase-hall, the size of each room on plan being about 50 feet by 30 feet.

The reading-room is lighted by five large traceried and transomed windows. The museum is lighted from the ceiling; the light entering through the glass slates on the roof is transmitted and subdued by passing through a ground-glass panelled ceiling in the room. On the first floor the frontage to the street is altogether taken up by a room 44 feet long and 20 feet wide, for the use of the members of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. The second, and third floors of the block of building facing Broad street are occupied by the librarian's apartments.

The building generally is built of brick and stone, the front being entirely of stone selected of different colours. The walling is a bluish-grey stone; dressings generally a light brown Campden stone; the four columns on the ground-floor are of Radyr stone. The architect was Frederick R. Kempson, Esq., F.I.B.A., of this city, and the style of architecture throughout may be described as Anglicised Venetian Gothic.

The carving is of early conventional character, and has been carefully and artistically executed. Animal life has been in troduced freely and with effect. The band of carving under the Woolhope Club-room windows contains the signs of the zodiac, with their symbols. Immediately over the four piers which carry the arcade are four circular medallions, in two of which are introduced the arms of the city and Mr. Rankin's arms; in the other two are heads representing Science and Art. The capitals of the four great pillars which carry the building represent Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, and depict the squirrels of Europe, the monkeys of Asia, the crocodiles and waterfowl of Africa, and the cockatoos, toucan, and opossum of America. Above those we have a string-course formed of the ancient signs of the zodiac and their modern interpretations, interwoven with perennial foliage of the months which they govern. The next string-course symbolises birds and animals of the chase, which form no inconsiderable portion of the contents of a museum - owls, a wild cat and bird, a fox, a dog and rabbit, &c. thus showing the bunting propensity in birds and beasts as well as in man.

The heads at the end of the second string-course, those of a seal and a lion, possibly have reference to Lord Saye and Seale (old spelling and the corporation of Hereford, whose crest is the lion - thus representing ecclesias tical and municipal government. The third string-course is supported by the heads of a bull and a goat; the former being the crest of a gentleman who has taken a leading part in the management, Dr Bull (playfully surrounded here by mushrooms, in allusion to his fungus-forays, the latter being the crest of the architect, Mr: Kempson. The elephant and the four-tusked babarossa on the top course, probably suggest the patient plodding and the laborious work which are the conditions of reaching a high position in knowledge. To complete our notice of the carving, we should add that the amphibious animals represented in the niches of the great entrance doorway are the water-shrew, the mullagong (Australia), the beaver, the walrus, the hippopotamus, the sea-elephant, the rhinoceros, the tapir, the otter, the sea-leopard, and the water-rat-all of which follow in the order in which they are mentioned. The inner niches of the doorway contain carvings of reptiles; birds, and beetles. Of the terminations to the labial mouldings, two are foliated, while the others bear respectively the figures of a crab and a bat. Grotesque animals have been introduced upon the parapet to break the long level sky-line.

The Guildhall is situate in Widemarsh street, near one of the entrances to the Market hall. It is used for magisterial sittings every Monday and Thursday, and for the monthly and quarterly meetings of the town council. The city quarter sessions are also held here. In the council chamber (adjoining) is a list of the mayors of the city from the earliest period. The County Gaol, in Commercial road, occupies the site of an old priory, which was dedicated to St. Guthlac. It is enclosed within a high brick wall, having a handsome rusticated entrance, with Tuscan pillars. The building was commenced in 1792, and completed in 1798, on Mr. Howard's plan of solitary confinement, under the superintendence and from the designs of Mr. Nash, the architect. The total cost of building amounted to about £18,646. The prison is spacious, having numerous cells and other apartments requisite for such a building. In 1819 twenty cells were added, and in 1843 further improvements were effected. The governor's house is in the centre of the building, and there is a chapel in which divine service is held three times weekly. The City Gaol, situate in Gaol street, formerly composed one side of Bye street gate; it is built of rough and uneven stones, which bear marks of considerable antiquity. The city police station is connected with the above.

The Corn Exchange, in Broad street, was erected on the site of the old theatre, at a cost of £3,580, raised by subscription. It was opened for business in January, 1858.

The Union Workhouse, situate at the back of the County gaol, Commercial road, was erected in 1836. It is a large and substantially built structure, capable of accommodating about 300 inmates. There are at the present time about 260 inmates. The union district comprises 50 parishes has an area of 67,343 acres, with a rateable value of £216,815; and a population in 1871 of 33,027. The guardians meet at the boardroom every Saturday; Thomas Cam, Esq., J.P., is the chairman.

The Permanent Library, situate in St. John street, was established in 1815. It contains upwards of 10,000 volumes, and is supported by subscription. It is open from 11 till 4. The Gas Works, situate at the bottom of Commercial road, are the property of the corporation, having been purchased in 1872. The Water Works and Reservoir are situated at Broomy hill, about 1 mile from the city.

The Theatre in Broad street having been removed to make room for the Corn exchange, theatrical performances now take place in a large concert-room situated at the Cattle market.

A new Public Hall and Skating Rink is now in course of construction in Eign street by Charles Watkins, Esq., of the Imperial brewery. The Herefordshire Club, situate at 42 Broad street, was opened in March 1871, for the accommodation of the county gentry and subscribers generally. It has now about 150 members.

The hotels are commensurate with the commercial importance of the city. The Green Dragon, in Broad street, is a first-class family establishment, to which is attached an extensive posting business carried on by Messrs. E.K. Jakeman & Co., under the title of the "Green Dragon Posting Company". The City Arms and The Mitre, also in Broad street, are good commercial and agricultural hotels. Old houses, or timber-framed structures, have given place to more modern erections. The most interesting specimen of a timber edifice now remaining, is what is termed the "Old House", situate in the High town.

The General Infirmary is beautifully situated near the river Wye, beyond the Castle green. It was first opened for the reception of patients on the 26th of March, 1776. The original promoter of this useful institution was the late Rev. Dr. Talbot, rector of Ullingswick, in this county. The ground on which this infirmary is built, and the premises attached thereto, were given by the Right Hon. the Earl of Oxford. The expense of the building itself was defrayed by subscriptions chiefly raised among the nobility and gentry of the county. It has recently undergone considerable improvement, and the interior is carefully. and skilfully laid out. Accommodation is provided for about 100 in-patients; the average annual number admitted is about 600, whilst more than 900 out-patients receive gratuitous advice and medicine every year. It is supported by annual subscriptions, donations, legacies, &c.

The Dispensary, in Commercial street, was established in July, 1835, its objects being to administer medical and surgical advice and assistance, together with the needful medicines, to such persons residing in the city and its vicinity as are unable, on account of poverty, to pay for the same; and to visit, at their own habitations, such patients as may reside within the boundary, and are unable to attend at the surgeon's house. It is not intended in any manner to interfere with the Hereford Infirmary. It is open on Mondays and Fridays, from 9.30 a.m. till 12 noon. It is supported by voluntary contributions, &c.

An admirable institution, called St. Martin's Home, was established a few years ago at Blackmarstone, for the purpose of removing young girls from the abodes of vice, and training them up as good servants. An acre of ground has been given by the Rev. Canon Powell, of Hinton court, on which a new and more convenient building will be erected in the course of the present year. The designs have been prepared by F.R. Kempson, Esq., F.I.B.A., of this city, and the estimated cost of building is about £4,000. The home is supported by donations and subscriptions, and conducted by ladies giving their gratuitous services to the work.

The Working Boys' Home for Herefordshire and district was established in 1874, and opened by the Lord Bishop in April of that year. Boys over nine years of age found in a state of destitution, or growing up uncared for under evil influences, who cannot obtain admission into other industrial institutions in the city, are at this new home received, clothed, fed, and taught, and employment is afterwards found for them. The boys (when not engaged with their education or other duties) are employed in cutting firewood, which is sold to the public through numerous agents in Herefordshire and adjoining counties. A new building is now in course of erection in Bath street for the accommodation of the boys. There is an orphanage for girls in St. Owen street.

BANKS.- The Gloucestershire Bank is most admirably located at the junction of High street and Broad street, not only for its central and commanding position as regards the convenience of the bank business, but also for architectural effect. The style of architecture is Italian, and the building is constructed in Bath stone, with occasional courses of red Forest stone. The carving adds greatly to the beauty of the building. At the centre point of the frontage is the entrance to the bank, over which are carved the arms of Gloucester and Hereford, surrounded by oak and ivy foliage. The entire frontage is 79 feet, and the height from pavement to the ridge of roof is 57 feet. Internally, the arrangements are as complete as the site will permit. The banking-room is 27 feet 6 inches by 21 feet 6 inches, and 15 feet high. Messrs. Medland, Maberly, and Medland, of London and Gloucester, were the architects.

The branch of the National Provincial Bank of England is in Broad street. The style of the building is of the Doric order of Roman architecture, executed from the purest examples, the principal façade next Broad street being wholly of Bath stone. The banking-room, entered by a porch from Broad street, is 30 feet by 28 feet, and 17 feet high; this room is of admirable proportions, and very complete in its arrangements. The building was erected from the designs and under the superintendence of George Cowley Haddon, Esq., architect, of this city.

The West of England Branch Bank is situated in Commercial street, and the Midland Banking Company's Branch Bank in Broad street. The Savings Bank and Government Annuity Institution is in East street.

MARKETS, FAIRS, TRADE, ETC.- The market accommodation of Hereford is superior to that of most towns. The poultry, butter, provision, and fish market is situated on the north side of High town, and between it and Maylord street; it is a large covered area, with every convenience for the purposes for which it is intended. The corn markets are held in the Corn exchange, Broad street. Stock sales are held weekly, and are well attended by dealers from all parts of the kingdom. The Cattle market, situated on the north side of the city, occupies an area of 4 acres, and has every convenience of pens, &c., with a long range of sheds for the exhibition of agricultural implements, &e. There are two markets held by charter, viz., on Wednesday and Saturday; and fairs on the Wednesday after February 2nd, Easter Wednesday, the first Wednesday after the 2nd of May, the first Wednesday in July, the third Wednesday in August; the third Wednesday in October, and the second Wednesday in December.

The principal trade of Hereford is in hops, wool, timber, cider, malt, oak bark, and other agricultural produce; leather-dressing, tanning, brewing, and brick and tile making are also carried on to some extent. There are also steam saw mills, steam flour mills, a distillery, &c. The Imperial brewery is a large establishment situated in Bewell street. Here are brewed the celebrated "Imperial" household ales, and Watkins's Hereford stout. Goods were chiefly conveyed to Bristol and other places by the Hereford and Gloucester canal previous to the opening of the different lines of railway, but are now principally conveyed by the latter means. The manufacture of gloves was formerly carried on here extensively, but it has now almost disappeared.

The works of the Herefordshire and South Wales Agricultural Manure Company (Limited) are situated in the parish of Holmer, about 12 miles from the centre of the city, and contiguous to the Shrewsbury and Hereford railway and Gloucester canal. They occupy an area of about an acre and a half of land. The general plan of the works is nearly square. The north side is devoted entirely to the manufacture of sulphuric acid and oil of vitriol; the west and part of the south sides are occupied with a powerful steam-engine, various mills, and machinery for grinding and pulverising bones and other phosphatic materials, from which the different manures are made. The flues from the various furnaces, boilers, &c., all radiate to the centre of the works, where the smoke ascends a shaft upwards of 200 feet high; this shaft, forming a graceful column, is seen for many miles round, and is a most pleasing feature in the landscape.

NEWSPAPERS.- There are three weekly newspapers published in Hereford. The Hereford Times, a giant double broadsheet, is conducted with great ability, as the organ of Liberal politics. It is published at the offices, Maylord street, every Friday night for Saturday, by Charles Anthony, Esq. It was established June 30th, 1832, and is now one of the leading newspapers in the kingdom. It has an average weekly circulation of about 12,000 copies. The proprietor courteously allows visitors to inspect his extensive establishment, and witness the rapidity with which the blank broadsheet is turned out a first-class newspaper, by means of all the latest appliances in newspaper printing. The Hereford Journal, the organ of Conservatism, is one of the oldest papers in England, having been originally established in 1713. It was subsequently published under the title of "The British Chronicle", or "Pugh's Hereford Journal", and its first number was issued August 9th, 1770. It has a very extensive circulation, and is published every Friday night for Saturday by the proprietors, Messrs. Eustace Hinton Jones & Co., at the office, Broad street. The Hereford Mercury and Independent (with which is incorporated the Hereford Express) is a cheap paper, published every Tuesday night for Wednesday by Mr. William Prosser, Church street.

GOVERNMENT.- By the municipal act of 1835, the city is governed by a corporation, consisting of a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen town councillors, with a recorder, clerk of the peace, treasurer, coroner, and the usual auxiliary officers. It is divided into three wards, viz., Ledbury, Leominster, and Monmouth, each ward returning two councillors annually. The city has had at different times no fewer than twenty-five charters, whereof the first was granted by Richard I. in the first year of his reign, A.D. 1189; the second in the seventeenth of John; the third in the eleventh of Henry III., which was confirmed and occasionally enlarged in the eighth of Edward II., and first and fifth of Edward III., and the seventh of Richard II., November 15th, 1383, when the name of Bailiff, which had before been given to the chief magistrate, was changed to that of Mayor.

It was further confirmed by succeeding princes, and in the first of Edward VI. a coroner was granted to the city. James I. gave a new charter of confirmation in the seventeenth year of his reign, which was renewed in the second of Charles II., and lastly, in the ninth of William III,, June 14th, 1696, it was confirmed. The first return of members of Parliament to represent the city was in the twenty-third of Edward L, A.D. 1295. The present representatives are George Clive, Esq., of Perrystone, Ross, and Evan Pateshall, Esq., of Allensmore court, Hereford. The assizes are held in March and July; and the sessions are held in the first week after the 28th December, the first week after the 31st March, the first week after the 24th June, and in the first week after the 11th October. Hereford is included in the Oxford circuit, and in the 27th circuit of the county court judges. The city police force consists of one superintendent, one inspector, three sergeants, and twenty-five constables. Petty sessions are held at the Guildhall every Monday and Thursday.

NOTABILIA.- Many persons of considerable eminence have been born in this city: Eleanor Gwynn, familiarly denominated Nell Gwynn, was born in an humble dwelling in Pipe lane; her son was created Duke of St. Alban's, and her grandson attained the honours of prelacy, and became the proprietor of that very episcopal palace almost adjoining the humble cot where his maternal ancestor first drew her breath. David Garrick, an actor of inimitable powers, was born at the Angel Inn in Widemarsh street in the year 1716, and died at his residence in the Adelphi, London, on the 20th of January, 1779, after much suffering, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, where a monument is erected to his memory. Another literary gentleman, William Havard, Esq., was born in St. Owen street, in this city, and died at his house at South Lambeth, London, in May 1811, aged seventy-six years. John Breton, or Britton, LL.D., who became bishop of this see in the year 1268; he wrote a learned book called "The Laws of England"; Dr. Miles Smith, Bishop of Gloucester (A.D. 1612), one of the translators of the Bible; John Gwillim, the celebrated author of "Heraldry Displayed", was born at or near Hereford; he died in 1621. John Davies, the celebrated penman and writing-master to Henry, Prince of Wales, son of James I.; his characters were so small as to require a magnifying-glass to read them, and so correct that it required time to decide whether they were written or printed.

The city is delightfully situated on a gentle acclivity, and is remarkably dry and healthy. It is surrounded by rich and beautiful scenery, the country consisting of fertile, arable, and pasture land, intermingled with hop, grounds and orchards. Fine views are obtained of the windings of the river Wye, and over the Welsh hills, which have furnished many subjects for the pencils of landscape painters. It stands on the northern bank of the Wye, over which is a bridge of six arches (supposed to have been erected about the end of the fifteenth century); one of the arches was rebuilt after the siege in 1645, the original one having been destroyed to prevent the approach of the Scots. By the renewal of this arch the height of the bridge was considerably reduced, which has given it an irregular appearance.

The area called the Castle green is surrounded by pleasant walks and seats for the accommodation of the inhabitants, who daily resort thither. Another walk has been made on the site of the lower keep of the castle, in the form of a semicircle, on which is a mound, called Castle hill. The Castle green is now held by the corporation of Hereford on a lease for 200 years, as a public recreation ground.

In the centre of the Castle green is a columnal monument, to commemorate the celebrated naval victories gained by Vice-Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson, who was admitted to the freedom of Hereford, August, 1802, and fell in the memorable battle of Trafalgar, October 21, 1805. This grateful and patriotic memorial in honour of the illustrious character above mentioned, who devoted his most heroic life to the service of hisking and country, was erected by the voluntary subscriptions of the city and neighbourhood, who subscribed a considerable sum likewise, in common with other parts of the kingdom, for the benefit of the wounded, and the families of those who fell, in the same engagement. The design of the monument is Hardwicke's, altered by Wood, architect, of Hereford, under whose superintendence the work was carried on; its height is 60 feet.

Various monasteries and religious houses existed in this city and its suburbs previous to the Reformation, but most of them have become extinct, and their sites occupied by other buildings. The oldest foundation (next to the cathedral) was St. Guthlac's priory, which is represented in the Harleian MSS. to have been "very pleasant and large". When this building was destroyed does not appear; its site is now occupied by the county gaol. On the north side of the city are some remains of a monastery of Black Friars, or Friars Preachers, who were originally established in Portfields about the year 1276, under the auspices of William Cantilupe, brother to Bishop Cantilupe. On the dissolution, the site and buildings of this priory were granted to John Scudamore, Esq., of Wilton, and William Wygmore, gent., of Shobdon; but early in the reign of Elizabeth they came into the possession of the Coningsby family, from whom the estate descended to the Earl of Essex, who sold it to an, ancestor of John Hungerford Arkwright, Esq. The principal vestiges remaining are some decayed offices, and the ruins of a cross, or stone pulpit, as originally built for the purpose of preaching from. It is constructed in an hexagonal form, and surrounded by a flight of steps gradually decreasing as they ascend. This cross is a beautiful piece of antiquity, and is much admired.

At the distance of a mile N.W. from the city, on the road to Hay and Kington, is a stone cross, called White Cross. It was erected in 1347, by Dr. Lewis Charlton, afterwards Bishop of Hereford, to commemorate the time when, in consequence of a pestilential malady raging in the city, the markets were held on this spot.

Races are held in March and September on a convenient course at Widemarsh, about 1 mile from the city, and a regatta is held annually on the Wye. The 1st and 8th corps of Herefordshire rifle volunteers (69th regiment), and the Herefordshire regiment of militia have their headquarters at the city of Hereford. This city gives the title of Viscount to the family of Devereux.

SUBURBS.- Tupsley is a parish partly within the liberties of the city of Hereford, from which place it is distant 1 mile E.N.E. This beautiful suburb contains many handsome residences. It was formerly a township of Hampton Bishop, from which it is distant 22 miles N.W., but it is now a distinct parish. The area is 1,476 acres; annual rateable value, £7,563; population in 1861, 797; in 1871, 915; inhabited houses, 172. The Vineyard was formerly an extra parochial place, but has been constituted a parish for the purposes of the Act 20 Vict., c.19. It consists of one house and about 11 acres of land; annual rateable value, £61; population in 1871, 11. Putson is a small township, in the parish of St. Martin, on the south bank of the river Wye,. about 1 mile from Hereford; and consists of a few scattered residences, all within the city liberties. Portions of the parishes of Holmer, Breinton, and Upper Bullingham, are also within the liberties of the city of Hereford.


Post and Telegraph Office, Broad street.
Mr. Frederick D. Norris, Postmaster.

Despatch of Letters.
London, Gloucester, Ross, Kington, Abergavenny, Crickhowell, and local posts6.0 a.m. 
London, Gloucester, Worcester, & Birmingham9.20 a.m. 
London and Ross12.30 p.m. 
Brecon, and town delivery2.45 p.m. 
Leominster, Ludlow, Tenbury, and Kington3.0 p.m. 
London and Shrewsbury4.30 p.m. 
Leominster, Ludlow, Shrewsbury, Stafford, Liverpool, Birmingham, Manchester, Midland, and the North7.25 p.m.7.25 p.m.
Hay, Eardisley, Glasbury, Whitney, Clifford, and Winforton
London8.15 p.m.7.25 p.m.
Ross, Gloucester, Bristol, West of England, and South Wales8.15 p.m.6.45 p.m.

No late fee; nor may letters be posted after the times mentioned Letters can be registered until within half an hour of the closing of the box for 4d., or up to the time of closing for 8d. Letters by the first London mail are delivered about mid-day, and those by the second in the afternoon. Letters despatched by the first Gloucester mail for Birmingham, Worcester, Cheltenham, Newport, Cardiff, Cowbridge, Bridgend, Taibach, Neath, Llanelly, and Swansea, are delivered the same day.

Delivery of Letters.
London and all parts of the Kingdom 7.15 a.m. 7.15 a.m.
London and Bristol (day mail), Gloucester, Worcester, Ross, and Brecon 1.0 p.m.  
London (2nd day mail), Shrewsbury, Kington, and local posts 7.30 p.m.  
The Head Office is open to the public as follows:-For Postal Telegrams, Stamps, &c., from 7.15 a.m. till 9 p.m.; for Money Orders, Savings Bank, Insurance and Annuity Business, from 9 a.m. till 6 p.m., and on Saturdays till 8 p.m. On,Sundays the office is open for Telegrams, Stamps, Callers' Letters, &c., from 7.15 a.m. till 10 a.m.
Sub-Post Office, 74 Eign street; Thomas James Barnard, Sub-Postmaster.- The letter-box is cleared at 12.10 noon, 6.30 p.m., and 8.20 p.m., on week-days only.
The Pillar and Wall Letter-Boxes are cleared as under:-
Barr's Court Station, 12.10, 7.10, 7.45, 9.0 p.m.; Sunday, 6.30 p.m.
Commercial Road 12.10, 6.30, 8.20; Sunday, 6.30 p.m.
Commercial Street
High Town
St. Owen Street
Widemarsh Street
Aylestone Hill6.30 p.m. daily.
Bartonsham (Harold Street)
Broomy Hill
Hampton Park (Tupsley)
St. Martin Street
White Cross Road
Holmer Road, Widemarsh6 p.m. daily.
Grafton6 p.m. week-days only.

Messengers leave the office daily (Sunday excepted) at 7 a.m., and return at 6 p.m. (in time for the London mail in the evening), taking the following routes :-Putson, Bullingham, Rotherwas, Dinedor, and Holme Lacy; Tupsley, Lugwardine, Bartestree, and Dormington; Stretton, Credenhill, Brinsop, and Kenchester; Burcott Row, Holmer, Moreton, Marden, Sutton, Shelwick, and Wellington; Aylestone Hill, Withington, and Westhide; Hampton, Mordiford, Sufton, and Fownhope; Widemarsh, Three Elms, Burghill, Tillington, and Canon Pyon; Blackmarstone, Clehonger, Eaton Bishop, Belmont, Tyberton, Madley, and King: stone; Broomy Hill, Breinton, Swainshill, and Bishopstone.
Evan Pateshall, Esq., Allensmore Court, Hereford; and Carlton Club, London, S.W. : George Clive, Esq., Perrystone, Ross; and 13 Mansfield street, Portland place, London, W., and Reform and Travellers' Clubs, S.W. CORPORATION.
Mayor.- Orlando Shellard, Esq. (second year.)
Recorder.- Francis Edward Guise, Esq.
Aldermen.- Francis Lewis Bodenham, Esq.; Charles Anthony, Esq.; James Jay, Esq.; Thomas Cam, Esq.; Joseph Carless, Esq.; James Frederick Symonds, Esq.
Councillors.- Ledbury Ward- Mr. Thomas Davies, Mr. George King, Mr. Sampson Packwood, Mr. Charles William Vaughan, Mr. Thomas Longstaff, Mr. Thomas Grandy. Leominster Ward- Mr. Edwin Edward Bosley, Mr. Edwin Smith, Mr. John Bosley, Mr. Abraham Powell, Mr. Philip Ralph, Mr. Aaron Walter Bezant. Monmouth Ward- Mr. J.T. Owen Fowler, Mr. Orlando Shellard, Mr. George Bobart Hanbury, Mr. Richard Cooke, Mr. John Gwynne James, Mr. Thomas Llanwarne.
Town Clerk and Clerk to the Urban Sanitary Authority.- Joseph Carless, jun., Esq.
Clerk of the Peace for the City.- Frederick Bodenham; Esq.
City Coroner.- John Lambe, Esq.
Medical Officer of Health.- Dr. H. Vavasour Sandford.
Treasurer.- John Alexander Forbes Suter, Esq.
Finance Clerk.- Mr. Thomas Smith.
Surveyor.- Mr. George Cole.
Presiding, Aldermen at Elections.- Ledbury Ward - Alderman Jay. Leominster Ward - Alderman Bodenham. Monmouth Ward - Alderman Cam.
LIST OF MAGISTRATES FOR THE CITY OF HEREFORD.- (Petty Sessions are held at the Guildhall, Widemarsh street, every Monday and Thursday at eleven o'clock.) Orlando Shellard, Esq. (Mayor); Francis Edward Guise, Esq. (Recorder); James Jay, Esq.; Thomas Theophilus Davies, Esq.; John Harward Griffiths, Esq.; Thomas Ambrey Court, Esq.; Richard Hereford, Esq.; Thomas Cam, Esq.; Evan Pateshall, Esq., M.P.; Charles Lingen, Esq.; Major-General Joshua Webb Goldsworthy; Charles Anthony, Esq.; Henry Graves Bull, Esq., M.D.; Joseph Carless, Esq.; Sir Herbert George Denman Croft, Bart.; John Morris, Esq.; James Rankin, Esq.; Captain T. Nourse Underwood, R.N.; and Edwin E. Bosley, Esq. Clerk to the Magistrates, James Davies, Esq., 132 Widemarsh Street.
LIST OF MAGISTRATES ACTING FOR THE HEREFORD DIVISION.- (Petty Sessions are held every Saturday in the Library, Shirehall, at 11 a.m.) Richard Hereford, Esq., Sufton Court, Chairman; Charles de la Barre Bodenham, Esq., Rotherwas; Thomas Cam, Esq., F.R.C.S., Hereford; Sir Herbert George Denman Croft, Bart., Lugwardine Court; Robert H. De Winton, Esq., Graftonbury; Captain Thomas William James Downes, Munstone House, Holmer, Hereford; William Brewster Evans, Esq., Swainshill; Edward Griffiths, Esq., Newcourt; John Harward Griffiths, Esq., The Weir; Richard John Griffiths, Esq., Newcourt; Richard James Hereford, Esq., Sufton Court; Henry Higgins, Esq., Thinghill; Edward Smalley Hutchinson, Esq., Longworth; Arthur Hutchinson, Esq., Hagley Park; Thomas Lechmere, Esq., Fownhope Court; John Morris, Esq., F.R.C.S., Hampton Park, Tupsley; James E. Norris, Esq., 31 Castle street, Hereford; Evan Pateshall, Esq., M.P., Allensmore Court; Francis Richard Wegg-Prosser, Esq., Belmont; Joseph Pulley, Esq., Lower Eaton; Sir Henry Edwyn Chandos Scudamore-Stanhope, Bart., Holme Lacy; and, Edwyn Francis Scudamore-Stanhope, Esq., Holme Lacy. The following is a List of Parishes and Places in Hereford Petty Sessional Division:- Aconbury, Allensmore, Amberley, Bartestree, Breinton, Bullingham (Lower), Bullingham (Upper), Burghill, Callow, Clehonger, Credenhill, Dinedor, Dinmore, Dormington, Eaton Bishop, Fownhope, Grafton, Hampton Bishop, Haywood Forest, Haywood Township, Holme Lacy, Holmer, Kenchester, Lugwardine, Marden, Mordiford, Moreton-upon-Lugg, Pipe and Lyde, Preston Wynne, Stoke Edith, St. John the Baptist, Stretton-juxta-Sugwas, Sutton St. Michael, Sutton St. Nicholas, Tupsley, Wellington, Westhide, Weston Beggard, and Withington. Clerk to the Justices, John Gwynne James, Esq., St. Peter street. Superintendent of Police for the Division, Mr. William Cope, Police station, Commercial road.
HEREFORD MUNICIPAL CHARITY TRUSTEES. Francis Lewis Bodenham, Esq. (Chairman), Richard Hereford, Esq., Thomas Cam, Esq., John Gwynne James, Esq., Joseph Carless, sen., Esq., Charles Anthony, Esq., John Burdett Parry, Esq., Rev. Richard Underwood, M.A., Robert Farthing Knight, Esq., Henry Child Beddoe, Esq., John Bosley, Esq., Henry Graves Bull, Esq., M.D., George Bobart Hanbury, Esq., James Henry Knight, Esq., James Cleife Lane, Esq., John James Reynolds, Esq., and James Frederick Symonds, Esq; Secretary to the Trustees, John Lambe, Esq.; office, 35 Bridge street.
LIST OF THE COMMITTEES OF THE HEREFORD TOWN COUNCIL, 1875-76. The Monthly and Quarterly Meetings of the Council are held on the first Thursday in each month at 3 p.m.
Watch, Fire Brigade, Markets, &c., Committee (meet every Monday at 7 p.m.)- Councillor Smith, Chairman; Alderman J. Carless, Councillors E.E. Bosley, A.W. Bezant, T. Davies, T. Grundy, G. King, and C. W. Vaughan. Clerk to the Committee, Mr. Thomas Smith.
Roads, Sewers, Buildings, and General Works Committee (meet every Tuesday at 10 a.m.)- The Mayor (Orlando Shellard, Esq.), Chairman; Aldermen C. Anthony and J. Carless; Councillors J. Bosley, R. Cooke, T. Davies, T. Llanwarne, and P. Ralph. Clerk, Mr. Thomas Smith.
Gas Works Committee (meet every Tuesday at 11.30 a.m.)- Councillor P. Ralph, Chairman; Councillors J.T. Owen Fowler, G. King, J.G. James, T. Longstaff, S. Packwood, O. Shellard, and E. Smith. Manager of Gas Works, Mr. W. Davis.
Water Works and Lighting Committee (meet the second and fourth Tuesday in the month at 10.45 a.m.)- Aldermen C. Anthony (Chairman), J. Jay, and J.F. Symonds; Councillors J. Bosley, A.W. Bezant, G.B. Hanbury, J.G. James, and A. Powell. Clerk, Mr. Thomas Smith.
Estates, Public Walks, and City Gaol Committee (meet the second and fourth Tuesday in the month at 12.30 p.m.)- Aldermen C. Anthony (Chairman), F.L. Bodenham, T. Cam, and J.F. Symonds; Councillors J. Bosley, A.W. Bezant, R. Cooke, & J.T. Owen Fowler. Clerk, T. Smith.
Finance, Rates, and City Debts Committee (meet the second and fourth Tuesday in the month at 3 p.m.)- Alderman F.L. Bodenham, Chairman; Alderman J. Jay, Councillors J.T. Owen Fowler, T. Grundy, J.G. James, G. King; T. Longstaff, and P. Ralph. Clerk, T. Smith.
Sanitary Committee (meet the second and fourth Friday in the month at 11 a.m.)- Alderman T. Cam, Chairman; Councillors E.E. Bosley, G.B. Hanbury, T. Llanwarne, T. Longstaff, S. Packwood, A. Powell, and C.W. Vaughan. Clerk to the Urban Authority, J. Carless, jun., Esq.
Free Library Committee (meet the last Monday in the month at 3 p.m.)- The Lord Bishop of Hereford, Chairman; The Mayor (Orlando Shellard, Esq.), Aldermen F.L. Bodenham, T. Cam, and J.F. Symonds; Councillors E.E. Bosley, R. Cooke, G.B. Hanbury, and T. Llanwarne; also, J. Rankin, Esq., Dr. Bull, Dr. Chapman, J. Carless, jun., Rev. H. Cooper Key, F.R.A.S., J.J. Reynolds, G. With, F.R.A.S., R. Keay, and G. Townshend Smith. Librarian, Mr. D.R. Chapman.

* The Mayor, by virtue of his Office, to be a Member of all Committees.
(With names of Officers attached.)
Butchers' & Vegetable Markets, entrances from Maylord st. & High town. Castle Green and Public Walks (managed by the Town Council).- Elisha Dobbs, Constable and Greenkeeper.
Cattle Market, New Market st.- Mr. John Barnett (Gloucester), Lessee.
Cemetery, Broomy hill.- Charles Grizzelle, Sexton.
City Gaol, Gaol street.- Mr. George Gouldrick, Governor; Mr. George Levinous Verdon, Deputy-Governor; Mrs. Hannah Gouldrick, Matron; Rev. Matthew Hill, B.A., Chaplain; Henry Vevers, Esq., M.R.C.S., Surgeon.
City Police Station and Office, Gaol street.- Mr. John Davies, Chief Superintendent; James Griffiths, Inspector.
City Surveyor's Office, 143A Widemarsh street (attendance from 10 till 12 a.m.)- Mr. George Cole, City Surveyor.
City Weighing Machine Office, 66 New Market street.- Mr. John Barnett (of Gloucester), Lessee; Albert Bullock, Machine Clerk.
Concert Room, at "Cattle Market Inn", New Market street. Corn Exchange, Broad street (used also for concerts, lectures, entertainments, &c.)- Mr. Henry Edmonds, Secretary.
Corporation Offices, 144 Widemarsh street.- Mr. Thomas Smith, Finance Clerk; William Moxley, Assistant Clerk.
County Court Offices, Offa street, corner of East street.- (The Court is held at the Shirehall two or three times monthly.) Josiah William Smith, Esq., Q.C., B.C.L., Athelstan Hall, Hereford, Judge (Circuit 27); Martin Curtler, Esq., Worcester, Treasurer; John James Reynolds, Esq., Registrar and High Bailiff; Joseph Carless, jun., Esq., Deputy Registrar; Charles Lerrey, Sub-Bailiff. The following is a List of Parishes and Places in the Jurisdiction of the Hereford County Court:-Abbey Dore, Aconbury, Allensmore, All Saints, Amberley, Bacton, Bartestree, Belmont, Birch (Little), Birch (Much), Bishopstone, Blakemere, Bolstone, Breinton, Bridge Solers, Brinsop, Brobury, Bullinghope (Lower), Bullinghope (Upper), Burghill, Byford, Callow, Canon Pyon, Clehonger, Credenhill, Dewchurch (Little), Dewchurch (Much), Dewsall, Dinedor, Dinmore, Dormington, Dulas, Eaton Bishop, Ewias Harold, Fownhope, Grafton, Grosmont (Mon.), Hampton Bishop, Haywood, Holmer and Shelwick, Holme Lacy, Huntington, Kenchester, Kenderchurch, Kentchurch, Kilpeck, King's Pyon, Kingstone, Liver's Ocle, Llancillo, Llangua (MoD.), Letton, Lugwardine, Madley, Mansell Gamage, Mansell Lacy, Marden, Michaelchurch, Moccas, Monnington, Mordiford, Moreton-on-Lugg, Newton, Norton Canon, Orcop, Peterchurch, Pipe and Lyde, Preston-upon-Wye, Preston-Wynne, Rowlstone, St. Devereux, St. John Baptist, St. Margaret, St. Martin, St. Nicholas, St. Owen, St. Peter, Staunton-upon-Wye, Stoke Edith, Stretton-Sugwas, Sutton St. Michael, Sutton St. Nicholas, Thruxton, Tillington, Treville, Tupsley, Turnastone, Tyberton, Vowchurch, Wellington, Westhide, Weston Beggard, Withington, Wormbridge, Wormsley, and Yazor.
County and City Lunatic Asylum, Burghill, near Hereford.- T. Algernon Chapman, Esq., M.D., Medical Superintendent; D.E. Morris, Esq., M.R.C.S., Assistant Medical Officer; Rev. C.H. Bulmer, M.A., Chaplain; Charles Gill Martin, Esq., Treasurer; W.J. Humfrys, Esq., Auditor; Mr. Edward Browning, Clerk to the Visitors, and Clerk and Steward; Miss Ann Cambridge, Housekeeper.
County Gaol, Commercial road.- Captain Edwin Cowtan, Governor; Mr. James Corbett, Deputy-Governor and Clerk to the Visiting Justices; Rev. Francis Lorenzo Izod, B.A., Chaplain; Henry Graves Bull, Esq., M.D., Medical Officer; Mrs. Elizabeth Brodie, Matron.
County Police Office at Sbirehall (entrances from St. Peter's square and Gaol street).- Captain James Drummond Telfer, R.A., Chief Constable of the County; Mr. Francis W. Dallow, Chief Clerk.
County Police Station, Commercial road.- Mr. William Cope, Superintendent for Hereford and Dore Divisions.
Depot for the British and Foreign Bible Society at Mr. Richard Elliott's, 4A St. Peter street.
Depot for the Hereford Diocesan Board of Education, for the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and for the National Society, at Messrs. Jakeman and Carver's, Bible and Crown press, 4 High town.
Dispensary (established July 1835), 51 Commercial street.- The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Hereford, Patron; The Hon. and Very Rev. the Dean of Hereford, President; Richard Hereford, Esq., Sutton Court, near Hereford, Treasurer; Henry Graves Bull, Esq., M.D., and Alfred R. Smith, Esq., M.D., Consulting Physicians; George B. Hanbury, Esq., and J. Griffith Morris, Esq., Visiting Surgeons; Lieut.- Colonel Money-Kyrle, Homme house, Dymock, Gloucester, Hon. Secretary; Mr. Reginald Jennings, High town, Hereford, Assistant Secretary, by whom subscriptions and donations are received, and from whom letters of recommendation may be obtained. The dispensary is open on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.
Fire Engine Station, Bath street.- John Davies, Superintendent.
Fruit, Vegetable, and Live Poultry Market, Widemarsh street, corner of Maylord street. Guildhall, Widemarsh street.
Her Majesty's Court of Probate Office, 27 Castle street.- (The district comprises the counties of Radnor, Brecknock, and Hereford.) Thomas Clifton Paris, Esq., M.A., Registrar; Mr. Theophilus Lane, First Clerk; William Earle, Second Clerk; Mr. Charles Arnold, Third Clerk.
Hereford City and County Benefit Building Society's Office, 138 Widemarsh street.- Mr. William Earle, Secretary.
Hereford Corporation Gas and Coke Works and Offices, Commercial road.- Mr. William Davis, Manager; Mr: William Matthews, Collector of Gas Accounts.
Hereford Free Library and Museum, Broad street.- The Lord Bishop of Hereford, Chairman; The Mayor (Orlando Shellard, Esq.), Aldermen Francis Lewis Bodenham, Thomas Cam, and James Frederick Symonds; Councillors Edwin Edward Bosley, Richard Cooke, George Bobart Hanbury, and Thomas Llanwarne; also, James Rankin, Esq., Dr. Bull, Dr. T. Algernon Chapman, Rev. H. Cooper Key, Messrs. Joseph Carless, jun., John James Reynolds, George Henry With, Robert Keay, and G. Townshend Smith, Committee; Mr. D.R. Chapman, Librarian and Curator.
Hereford Orphanage for Girls and Industrial School, 133 St. Owen street.- Mrs. Atlay, The Palace, Hereford, Hon. Secretary; Thomas Cam, Esq., Hon. Treasurer; Rev. G.B. Bennett, Hon. Chaplain; Miss Turner, Matron; Miss Powell, Assistant Matron.
Hereford General Infirmary (established 1776), Bartonsham. -The Right Hon. Lord Bateman (Lord Lieutenant of the County), and the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Hereford, Patrons; The High Sheriff of the County, President; D.G. Secretan J. Woodhouse, Esq., Chairman of Board of Management; Henry Graves Bull, Esq., M.D., and Alfred Rickards Smith, Esq., M.D., Physicians; Charles Lingen, Esq., F.R.C.S., and Thomas Cam, Esq., F.R.C.S., Surgeons Extraordinary; Henry Vevers, Esq., Thomas Turner, Esq., and Richard Thomason, Esq., Surgeons; J.T. Owen Fowler, Esq., Savings Bank, Secretary; Charles Gill Martin, Esq., Gloucestershire Bank, Treasurer; H.G. Apperley, Esq., and Charles Croose, Esq., Auditors; Rev. William D.V. Duncombe, M.A., Chaplain; Henry C. Moore, Esq., M.R.C.S., House Surgeon.; Mr. H.S. Dobles, Dispenser; Mrs. E. Baker, Matron. The weekly board of management meets every Thursday at 12 o'clock. Quarterly meetings are held on the fourth Thursday after Lady-day, Midsummer-day, Michaelmas-day, and Christmas-day. The annual meeting is held on the fourth Thursday in June.
Hereford Permanent Library, St. John street (established 1816); open daily from 11 a.m. till 4 p.m.- Charles Gill Martin, Esq., President; Henry Graves Bull, Esq., M.D., Hon. Librarian; J.T. Owen Fowler, Esq., Hon. Treasurer; F.L. Bodenbam, Esq., H.C. Beddoe, Esq., Thomas Cam, Esq., F.R.C.S., Joseph Carless, jun., Esq., W.J. Humfrys, Esq., G.B. Hanbury, Esq., J.H. Knight, Esq., Colonel Knox, T. Llanwarne, Esq., Rev. R. Muckleston, M.A., G.T. Smith, Esq., and D.G. Secretan James Woodhouse, Esq., Committee of Management; Mr. Edward Weymss, Sub-Librarian and Secretary.
Hereford Public Baths (Industrial Aid Society's), Bath street.- Thomas Bridgeman, Superintendent of Washing and Medicated Baths; William Long, Superintendent of Swimming Bath.
Herefordshire County and City Club (for Ladies and Gentlemen), 42 Broad street.- Rev. Archer Clive, M.A., Chairman of Committee; Edward Maddison, Esq., Hon. Secretary; The Midland Banking Company, Limited, Treasurers; Nathaniel Bird, Steward.
High Court of Justice-Hereford District Registry, office, Offa street, corner of East street.- John James Reynolds, Esq., Registrar.
Inland Revenue Office, 30 Widemarsh street (open from 9 till 3); William Coles, Esq., Collector of Inland Revenue and Receiving Officer of Taxes; Mr. Henry Thomas Chaplin, First Clerk; Mr. Alfred Slann, Second Clerk; Mr. William Donnelly, Supervisor; Mr. A.W. Williams (1st Div.), Mr. John Smith Coleby (2nd Div.), Mr. Thomas Williams (1st Ride), Mr. H. Symons (2nd Ride), Mr. William Price (3rd Ride), Officers.
Judges' Lodgings, 5 Commercial street.- Mr. Thomas Hutton, Keeper.
Lecture Hall, Bridge street (a spacious room,-well fitted up, and capable seating about 700 persons).- Mr. Henry Rogers, Proprietor.
Lecture Hall, New Market st.- Mr. John Wright Saunders, Proprietor.
Market Hall (for Provisions, Poultry, &c.), entrances from High town, Maylord street, and Widemarsh street.- James Percy, Lessee.
Militia Barracks and Stores, Harold street, Bartonsham.- Lieutenant-Colonel J. Berington, Colonel Commandant; Captain Doughty, Adjutant.
Militia Hospital, 93 Eign road.- Albert Eves and Edmund Nolan, Staff Sergeants in residence during service.
Mission Hall (Gospel meetings every Sunday evening at 7 o'clock), New Market street.
Mission Room, 28 Friars street (mothers' meetings, &c., are held here).
Office for the Afairs of Guy's Hospital (London), 14 High street.- Arthur Armitage, Esq., Dadnor, Ross, Agent for Herefordshire District, attends every Wednesday.
Offices of the Clerk of the Peace for the County, at Shirehall (office hours 10 till 2), and 15 Bridge street.- John Cleave, Esq., Clerk of the Peace.
Race Course, Widemarsh.
Rate Offices.- City and Sewerage Rate Office, 24 St. Owen street; Mr. George Parsons, Collector. Gas and Water Rate Office, 11 Victoria street; Mr. William Matthews, Collector.
Room for Religious Meetings, 8 St. Owen street.
St. George's Hall and Skating Rink, Eign square.- Charles Watkins, Esq., Proprietor.
St. Martin's Home, Blackmarstone.- The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Hereford, Visitor; The Ven. Lord Saye and Sele, Chandos Wren Hoskyns, Esq., and the Rev. G.H. Davenport, Trustees; C. Wren Hoskyns, Esq., Harewood house, Ross, Hon. Treasurer; The Gloucestershire Banking Company, Hereford, Bankers; Rev. W. Buckle, M.A., Canon Froome vicarage, Ledbury, Hon. Secretary; Rev. T. Shackleton, M.A., Chaplain; H.G. Bull, Esq., M.D., Hon. Physician; Richard Thomason, Esq., Hon. Surgeon; Miss Elizabeth Jones, Superintendent.
Savings Bank, East street.- J.T. Owen Fowler, Esq., Secretary and Actuary. (For names of other officers see BANKS, page 250.)
Servants' Home and Free Registry Society, 75 Commercial road.- Mrs. Meredith, Hon. Secretary; The-Gloucestershire Banking Co., Treasurers; Susannah Reems, Matron.
Shirehall, St. Peter's square.- Mr. Abraham Winter, Custodian.
Slaughter Houses, Priory road, Commercial road.
Stamp Office, 5 St. Peter street (office hours 10 till 5).- John Gwynne James, Esq., Distributor for the Counties of Hereford and Radnor.
Subscription Billiard Rooms, St. John street (managed by a committee, and members admitted by ballot).- Mr. ___ Lessee.
Tax Surveyor's Office, at Inland Revenue office, 30 Widemarsh street.- W. Holroyd Price, Esq., Surveyor of Taxes. The Divisions are - Bromyard, Hereford North, Hereford South, Hereford City, Kington, Ledbury, Peterchurch, Ross, and Weobley.
Water Works, Broomy hill.- George Jeynes, Working Engineer.
Working Boys' Home, Bath street.- Mr. J.D. Craig, Master and Hon. Secretary.
HEREFORD UNION.- Union Workhouse, Commercial road. - (The Guardians meet at the Board-room every Saturday, at 11 a.m.) Thomas Cam, Esq., J.P., Chairman; R.E. Apperley, and W. Jay, Esqs., Vice-Chairmen; Thomas Llanwarne, Esq., Clerk to the Guardians and to the Assessment Committee (office, 8 St. John street); Nicholas Sirrell Wynn, Esq., Treasurer; Alfred William Roberts, Esq., Auditor; Rev. Alfred Robinson, M.A., Chaplain; George Bobart Hanbury, Esq., M.R.C.S., House Surgeon; Mr. James M'Cormick, Governor; Mrs. Jane M'Cormick, Matron; Mr. Charles Price, Schoolmaster; Miss Elizabeth Rogers, Schoolmistress; George Bobart Hanbury, Esq., M.R.C.S., Medical Officer and Public Vaccinator for Hereford District; James Cleife Lane, Esq., M.R.C.S., ditto for Burghill District; Richard Thomason, Esq., M.R.C.S., ditto for Dewchurch District; John Griffith Morris, Esq., M.R.C.S., ditto for Fownhope District; Mr. Robert Wood, 69 Green street, Bartonsham, Relieving Officer for Fownhope District; Mr. Edward Fowles, Hinton road, ditto for Dewchurch District; Mr. Thomas Lane, Burghill villa, White Cross road, ditto for Burghill District. The Union comprises the following Parishes:-Aconbury, All Saints (Hereford); Allensmore, Amberley, Bartestree, Birch (Little), Birch (Much), Bolstone, Breinton, Bullingham (Upper), Bullingham (Lower), Burghill and Tillington, Callow, Clehonger, Credenhill, Dewchurch (Little), Dewchurch (Much), Dewsall, Dinedor, Dinmore, Dorrnington, Eaton Bishop, Fownhope, Grafton, Hampton Bishop, Haywood, Holme Lacy, Holmer and Shelwick, Huntington, Kenchester, Lugwardine, Marden, Mordiford, Moreton-on-Lugg, Pipe-cum-Lyde, Preston Wynne, St. John Baptist (Hereford), St. Martin (Hereford), St. Nicholas (Hereford), St. Owen (Hereford), St. Peter (Hereford), Stoke Edith, Stretton-Sugwas, Sutton St, Michael, Sutton St. Nicholas, Tupsley, Vineyard, Wellington, Westhide, Weston Beggard, and Withington.
HEREFORD RURAL SANITARY AUTHORITY.- (The Board meets on the last Saturday in each month at 12.45 p.m.) Richard Hereford, Esq., Chairman; Mr. George Hooper, Vice-Chairman; H.V. Sandford, Esq., M.D., Medical Officer of Health; Thomas Llanwarne, Esq., Clerk; Nicholas Sirrell Wynn, Esq., Treasurer; Mr. Frederick Fowles, Inspector of Nuisances.
REGISTRATION OF BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS.- Thomas Llanwarne, Esq., 8 St. John street, Superintendent Registrar; Mr. James Weymss, 66 St. Owen street, Registrar of Marriages; Mr. Henry Griffiths, St. Peter street, Registrar of Births and Deaths for the City District (Mr William Wigley, Deputy); Mr. Thomas Lane, Burghill villa, White Cross road, Registrar for Burghill District; Mr. Edward Fowles, Hinton road, Registrar for Dewchurch District; Mr. Robert Wood, 69 Green street, Bartonsham, Registrar for Fownhope District.
BANKS. Gloucestershire Banking Company (branch of), draw on the Union Bank of London, 2 Princes street, E.C.; bank hours 10 till 3, on Wednesdays 10 till 5, and on Thursdays 10 till 1; Charles Gill Martin, Esq., Manager, 1 Broad street, corner of High street.
Midland Banking Company, limited, draw on the London and County bank, Lombard street, London, E.C.; bank hours 10 till 3, on Wednesdays 10 till 5, and on Thursdays 10 till 1; Nicholas Sirrell Wynn, Esq., Manager, 35 Broad street.
National Provincial Bank of England (branch of ), draw on the head offices of the National Provincial Bank of England, Bishopsgate street, corner of Threadneedle street, London, E.C.; bank hours 10 till 3, on Wednesdays 10 till 5, and on Thursdays 10 till 1; John Alexander Forbes Suter, Esq., Manager, Broad street.
West of England and South Wales District Banking Company (branch of ), draw on Glyn, Mills, Currie, & Co., Lombard street, London, E.C.; bank hours 10 till 3, on Wednesdays 10 till 5, and on Thursdays 10 till 1; Arthur Trelawny Wickham New, Esq., Manager, 52 Commercial street.
Hereford Savings Bank and Government Annuity Institution (established 1816, and certified under the Act of 1863), East street; bank hours 10 till 3, on Wednesdays 10 till 5, and on Thursdays 10 till 1; the Right Rev. the Lord, Bishop of Hereford, Chairman; J.A.F. Suter, Esq., National Provincial Bank, Treasurer; J.T. Owen Fowler, Esq., Secretary and Actuary; Mr. James Corbett, Auditor; Messrs. George H. Barlow and Egerton Harry Smith, Clerks. Any sum received from one penny to thirty pounds, and interest allowed on all sums of ten shillings and upwards at the rate of 3 per cent. Any sum not exceeding £10 can be withdrawn on demand. Government annuities granted from £4 to £50 per annum.
NEWSPAPERS. Hereford Times, and General Advertiser for the Counties of Hereford, Monmouth, Brecon, Glamorgan, Carmarthen, Cardigan, Radnor, Montgomery, Salop, Stafford, Worcester, and Gloucester; printed and published by the proprietor, Charles Anthony, Esq., every Friday evening for Saturday (Lewis Sergeant, Esq., Editor); price 3½d.; Liberal polities; two full sheets, 16 pages, 112 columns, with monthly supplement; established June 30th, 1832; Steam printing offices, Maylord street (see advertisement at commencement of index).
Hereford Journal, and General Advertiser for the Counties of Hereford, Gloucester, Salop, Worcester, Monmouth, Brecon, Radnor, Glamorgan, and the rest of the Principality of Wales; printed and published by Eustace Hinton Jones & Co., every Friday evening for Saturday; price 2d.; Conservative politics; 8 pp.; established 1713; office, 34 Broad street (see advertisement opposite " Newspapers " in trades directory).
Hereford Mercury and Independent (with which is incorporated the Hereford Express), printed and published by the proprietor, Mr. William Prosser, every Tuesday evening for Wednesday; price one penny; independent politics; office, 16 Church street (see advertisement page 50).
Hereford Weekly Marvel, published by Mr. Frederick Thomas Hawkins, price one penny; office, 13 High street.
DIOCESE OF HEREFORD. Lord Bishop of the Diocese.- The Right Reverend James Atlay, D.D., formerly Fellow and Tutor of St. John's College, Cambridge; Vicar of Leeds, 1859; Canon of Ripon, 1861; Consecrated at Westminster Abbey, June 24, 1868. Patron of 32 Benefices, the 2 Archdeaconries, the 4 Canonries, and the 28 Prebends in the Cathedral. Residence-The Palace, Hereford.
Archdeacons:-The Ven. William Waring, M.A., Ludlow, 1851; The Right Hon. and Ven. Lord Saye and Sele, D.C.L., Hereford, 1863.
Chancellor.- The Worshipful Thomas Hutchinson Tristram, D.C.L.
Bishop's Chaplains.- Rev. James Wayland Joyce, M.A.; Rev. Sidney Lidderdale Smith, M.A.; Rev. Francis Tebbs Havergal, M.A.
Bishop's Secretaries.- Henry Child Beddoe, Esq., N.P., Hereford; J.B. Lee, Esq., Broad Sanctuary, Westminster, S.W.
Registrar of the Diocese.- Charles J. Hampden, Esq., M.A.
Deputy Registrar, and Registrar of the Archdeaconries of Hereford and Ludlow.- Henry Child Beddoe, Esq., N.P.
Apparitor General.- William Griffiths, Esq.
Representatives in Convocation.- For the Chapter, Rev. Sir F.A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., M.A. & Mus. Doe.; for the Clergy, Rev. John Jebb, D.D., Rev J.W. Joyce, M.A.
Diocesan Surveyor of Ecclesiastical Dilapidations.- Thomas Nicholson, Esq., F.I.B.A., Hereford.
List of Surrogates for granting Marriage Licences in the Diocese of Hereford.- Rev. Joseph Henry Barker, M.A., Aylestone Hill, Hereford; Rev. Edwin Barton, B.C.L., Wigmore Vicarage, Kingsland, R.S.O.;- Rev. George Bellett, M.A., Wbitbourne Rectory, Worcester; Rev. Henry Browne, B.A., Eastham Rectory, Tenbury; Rev. John Burd, M.A., Chirbury Vicarage, Shrewsbury; Rev. Samuel Bentley, M.A., Bridgnorth; Rev. Robert Lingen Burton, M.A., Abbey House, Shrewsbury; Rev. John Edmund Cheese, Bosbury Vicarage, Ledbury; Rev. Robert H. Cobbold, M.A., Ross Rectory; Rev. Augustin G. Edouart, M.A., Leominster Vicarage; Rev. John Fortescue, M.A., Wribbenhall, Bewdley; Rev. John Goss, M.A., The College, Hereford.; Rev.. Thomas Green, M.A., Aymestrey Vicarage; Rev. William Harrison, M.A., Pontesbury; Rev. John Jackson, M.A., Ledbury Rectory; Rev. John Price Jones, B.D., Bankfield, Leominster; Rev. John R.N. Kinchant, B.A., Llanvair-Waterdine, Knighton; Rev. Hubert M'Laughlin, M.A., Boraston Rectory, Tenbury; Rev. Robert Meyricke, B.A., Ludlow; Rev. Josiah Mitchell, M.A., Alberbury Vicarage, Salop; Rev. Preston Nunn, Church Stretton, Salop; Rev. Oliver Ormerod, M.A., Presteigne Rectory, Radnorshire; Rev. George Pinhorn, M.A., Brimfield Rectory, R.S.O.; Rev. Charles Proberts, Bacton Rectory, Hereford; Rev. Philip Edgar Pratt, M.A., Diddlebury Vicarage, Salop; Rev. Henry B. Purton, B.A., Weobley Vicarage; Rev. William Morgan Rowland, M.A., Bishop's Castle Vicarage, Salop; Rev. Thomas Shepherd, B.A., Wellington Vicarage, Hereford; Rev. Thomas Nash Stephenson, M.A., Bromyard Vicarage; Rev. John D. Watherston, M.A., Monmouth; Rev. Joseph Neate Walsh, M.A., King ton; Rev. Thomas West, M.A., Fownhope Vicarage, Hereford; Rev. John Williams, M.A., Thornbury Rectory, Bromyard; Rev. George Wintour, St. Luke's Rectory, Ironbridge, Salop; Rev. George Edward Yate, M.A., Madeley Vicarage, Salop.
PLACES OF WORSHIP. THE CATHEDRAL. (Open for daily services at 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. on week-days, and 11 a.m. and 6.30 p.m. on Sundays. .
Dean.- The Honourable and Very Rev. George Herbert, M.A., 1867.
Præcentor.- Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., M.A., Mus. Doe., 1855.
Archdeacon of Hereford.- Ven. Lord Saye and Sele, D.C.L., 1861.
Archdeacon of Ludlow.- Ven. William Waring, M.A., 1851.
Treasurer.- Right Hon. and Ven. Lord Saye and Sele, D.C.L., 1832.
Sub-Treasurer.- Rev. Francis Tebbs Havergal, M.A., 1866.
Chancellor of the Choir.- Rev. Archer Clive, M.A., 1868.
Prælector.- Rev. Henry W. Phillott, M.A., 1870.
Succentor.- Rev. J.R.G. Taylor, M.A., 1874.
Canons Residentiary.- Right Hon. and Ven. Lord Saye and Sele, D.C:L., Præb. de Eigne, 1840; Rev. William Peete Musgrave, M.A., Præb. Episcopi, 1844; Ven. William Waring, M.A., Archd. of Ludlow, 1867; Rev. John Jebb, D.D., Præb. de Preston, 1870.
Prebendaries.- Right Hon. and Ven. Lord Saye and Sele, D.C.L., Præb. de Eigne, 1825; Hon. and Rev. Henry Rodney, M.A., Præb. de Huntington, 1826; Rev. Harry Lee, B.D., Præb. de Putston Majore, 1826; Rev. John Clutton, M.A., Præb. de Norton, 1835; Rev. Charles Taylor, B.D., Præb. de Moreton Magna, 1836; Rev. William Peete Musgrave, M.A., Præb. Episcopi, 1844; Rev. Archer Clive, M.A., Præb. de Pionia Parva, 1850; Rev. William Knox Marshall, B.D., Præb. de Prato Majore, 1856; Rev. William Poole, M.A., Præb. de Withington Majore, 1856; Rev. William Francis Raymond, M.A., Præb. de: Wellington, 1857; Rev. Hubert M'Laughlin, M.A., Præb. de Hunderton, 1857; Rev. John Jebb, D.D., Præb. de Preston, 1858; Rev. William P. Hopton, M.A., Præb. de E-Withington, 1858; Rev. Henry W. Phillott, M.A., Præb. de Gorwall, 1864; Rev. Edward Renn Hampden, M.A., Præb. de Putston Minore, 1867; Hon. and Rev. A. Bateman Hanbury, M.A., Præb. de Hampton, 1867; Rev. Richard Underwood, M.A., Præb. de Colwall, 1868; Rev. J. Wayland Joyce, M.A., Præb. de Withington Parva, 1868; Rev. William Palling, M.A.; Præb. de Bullinghope, 1868; Rev. John Purton, M.A., Præb. de Warham, 1869; Rev. Henry T. Hill, M.A., Præb. de Nonnington, 1870; Rev. John J. Trollope, M.A., Præb. de Bartonsham, 1870; Rev. Isaac Gregory Smith, M.A., Præb. de Prato Minore, 1870; Rev. William M. Rowland, M.A., Præb. de Hinton, 1870; Rev. Joseph Edwards, M.A., Præb. de Inkbarrow, 1871; Rev. Sidney Lidderdale. Smith, M.A., Præb. de Moreton Parva, 1874; Rev. James Frederic Crouch, B.D., Præb. de Cublington, 1874; Rev. James Davies, M.A., Præb. de Moreton et Whaddon, 1874.
Chapter Clerk and Registrar to the Dean.- J.H. Knight, Esq., N.P.
COLLEGE OF VICARS CHORAL. Rev. John Goss, M.A., 1850; Minor Canon, 1853; Custos, 1873. Rev. W.D.V. Duncombe, M.A., 1866; Minor Canon, 1873. Rev. J.R.G. Taylor, M.A., 1867; Minor Canon, 1874; Subchanter, 1874. Rev. Alfred J. Capel, B.A., 1869; Minor Canon, 1875; Rev. Alfred Robinson, M.A., 1867; ii. Vic. de Diddlebury; 1874. Rev. Thomas Shackleton, M.A., 1869; i. Vic. de Diddlebury, 1875.
Assistant Vicars Choral.- Rev. Francis L. Izod, B.A., 1872; Rev. Frederick J.O. Helmore, B.A., 1874; Mr. C. Fredericks, 1874; Mr. S. Houston Flint, 1874; Mr. W. Mason, 1874; Mr. R. Andrews, 1875; Mr: R. Clarke, 1876; Mr. W.J. Burville (Supernumerary.
Organist.- George Townshend Smith, Esq., 1842.
Twelve Choristers. Four Dean's Scholars.
Verger.- Mr. William Jennings.
Sextons.- Mr. William Caldwell and Mr. A. Moore.
CATHEDRAL SCHOOL. Head Master.- Rev. Francis Henry Tatham, M.A., late Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1875.
Assistant Masters.- R.M. Fowler, M.A., Scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford; A. Temperley, B.A., Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge; S. Poole, B.A., late Exhibitioner of Exeter College, Oxford, and others.
Master of the Lower School.- Rev. James Brown, B.A., late Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
CHURCHES. All Saints', Eign street, opposite Broad street.- Rev. Richard Underwood, M.A., Vicar; Rev. William Richard Jenkins, M.A., Curate; Mr. John Marchant and Capt. T. Nourse Underwood, R.N., Churchwardens; Mr. Heins, Organist; Mr. C. Geary, Clerk; Mr. W. Stanley, Sexton.
St. James', Bartonsham.- Rev. Richard Powell, M.A., Vicar; Rev. Frederick John Ottley Helmore, B.A., Curate; Messrs. J.W. Calmer and William Veare, Churchwardens; Mr. D.R. Chapman, Organist; Mr. Emanuel James, Verger.
St. John Baptist (Ladye Chapel of Cathedral).- Rev. John Goss, M.A., Vicar; Rev. John Robert Gleig Taylor, M.A., Curate; J.H. Knight and J.T. Owen Fowler, Esqs., Churchwardens.
St. Martin's, Ross road.- Rev. George Henry Kirwood, M.A., Vicar; Messrs. Thomas Llanwarne and John S. Coleby, Churchwardens; Miss Broad, Organist; Richard Bethell, Parish Clerk and Sexton.
St. Nicholas', St. Nicholas street, corner of Victoria street.- Rev. Samuel Holmes, B.A., Rector; Orlando Shellard and William J. Humfrys, Esqs., Churchwardens; Mr. Nicholas Heins, Organist; Mr. Thomas Lawrence, Clerk and Sexton.
St. Owen's, St. Owen street without.- Rev. G. Bright Bennett, M.A., Rector; Rev. George John Garton, B.A., and Rev. William Bowell, Curates; Richard Garratt and Joseph Carless, jun., Esqs., Churchwardens.
St. Paul's, Tupsley.- Rev. Thomas Canning, M.A., Vicar; Rev. Alfred John Capel, B.A., Curate; Frederick R. Kempson and Philip Ballard, Esqs., Churchwardens; Mr. J. Boyle, Organist.
St. Peter's, St. Peter street.- Rev. George Bright Bennett, M.A., Vicar; Rev. George John Garton, B.A., and Rev. William Bowell, Curates; Messrs. Henry Clarkson and Charles W. Vaughan, Churchwardens; Mr. G.J. Caldwell, Organist; Mr. John Julius Jones, Clerk and Sexton.
Blackmarstone Chapel of Ease.- Rev. John Goss, M.A., Vicar of St. John-the-Baptist with Blackmarstone.
Roman Catholic (St. Francis Xavier's), Broad street.- The Very Rev. Canon Charles Vincent Dolman, O.S.B., Priest; Right Rev. Thomas Joseph Brown, D.D., Bishop of Newport and Menevia; Right Rev. Dr. Hedley, O.S.B. (Bishop of Cæsaropolis), Coadjutor Bishop.
CHAPELS. Baptist, Commercial road.- Rev. ___, Pastor.
Congregational, Eign-brook.- Rev. James Ormerod Hill, Minister.
Countess of Huntingdon's, Berrington st.- Rev. Jas. Wager, Minister.
Plymouth Brethren Meeting Rooms, The Barton and St. Owen street.- Ministers various.
Primitive Methodist (Ebenezer), St. Owen street.- Revs. W.L. Harris and T. Lakin, Ministers.
Primitive Methodist, Clifford St., White Cross rd.- Ministers various.
Religious Society of Friends' Meeting House, King street.
Wesleyan, Bridge street.- Rev. Henry Hayman, Superintendent; Rev. John Thomas Harrison, Minister.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS. Hereford Cathedral School, Cathedral close.- Rev. Francis Henry Tatham, M.A. (late Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Assistant Master of Westminster School), Head Master; R.M. Fowler, Esq., M.A. (late Scholar of Pembroke College), Oxford, A. Temperley, Esq., B,A. (late Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge), and S. Poole, Esq., B.A. (late Exhibitioner of Exeter College, Oxford), Assistant Masters; Rev. James Brown, B.A. (late Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge), Master of the Lower School; E.H. Kelly, Assistant Master; Mons. Menard, Master of Modern Languages; Mr. Burville, Music Master; Mr. Winters, Drawing Master (see advt. facing description of the city of Hereford).
All Saints' National, Widemarsh street (closed).
Blue Coat (boys), Blue School street.- Mr. George J. Caldwell, Head Master; Mr. Henry Pryse, Assistant Master.
Blue Coat (girls), Blue School street.- Miss Elizabeth Jones, Mistress; Miss F.L. Caldwell, Assistant Mistress.
Holmer National (boys and girls), Widemarsh common. -Mr. Josiah Evans, Master; Mrs. Evans, Sewing Mistress; Miss Sarah Manton, Infants' Mistress.
Industrial School and Orphanage, 133 St. Owen street.- Mrs. C. Smith, Matron.
Roman Catholic (boys and girls), Broad st.- Miss M. Walsh, Mistress.
Roman Catholic (boys, girls, and infants), Great Berrington street.- Conducted by the Sisters of Charity of S. Vincent de Paul.
Scudamore Charity (boys, girls, and infants), Friars street.- Mr. Charles Caldicott, Master; Mrs. Annie Morrison, Mistress.
St. James' (formerly St. Owen's) Infant, St. Owen street.- Miss Jane Owens, Mistress.
St. John Baptist (boys, girls, and infants), Church street.- Miss Sprod, Mistress; Miss Mary Ellis, Infants' Mistress.
St. Martin's (boys and girls), Ross road.- Mr. Charles Jones, Master; .Mrs. S. Jones, Mistress.
St. Nicholas' (infant), Friars street.- Miss Harriet Pearce, Mistress.
St. Peter's National (boys, girls, and infants), Union street.- Mr. W.T. Lawrence; Master; Mrs. Elizabeth King, Mistress; Miss S. Lowe, Infants' Mistress.
Tupsley National (boys and girls).- Mr. John Boyles, Master; Mrs. Elizabeth Boyles, Mistress.
ALMSHOUSES, HOSPITALS, ETC. Aubrey's, 13 to 18 Berrington street.
Coningsby (or Red Coat) Hospital, Widemarsh street.- Rev. Henry Arkwright, M.A., Chaplain; Rev. Richard Underwood, M.A., Deputy Chaplain.
Johnson's, Commercial road.
Lazarus, or Sick Man's, White Cross road.
Lingen's or Shelley's, White Cross road.
Price's, White Cross street.- Rev. William Richard Jenkins, M.A., Chaplain.
St. Ethelbert's, Castle street.- The Right Hon. and Ven. Lord Saye and Sele, D.C.L., Master.
St. Giles's, St. Owen's gate.- Rev. Richard Powell, M.A., Chaplain.
Symond's, Widemarsh without.
Trinity (or Kerry's), Commercial street.
Weaver's, Bewell street.
Williams', St. Owen's gate.- Rev. Richard Powell, M.A., Chaplain.
SOCIETIES, ASSOCIATIONS, ETC. Ancient Order of Odd Fellows, M. U.- Virtute Securus Lodge (founded April 10th, 1839) held at the Boothall Inn, St. Peter street, every alternate Tuesday (Mr. James Watson Morrison, Secretary; Mr. Thomas Bigglestone, Treasurer; Mr Richard Norton, Sick Steward; Richard Thomason, Esq., M.R.C.S., Surgeon); Victoria Lodge, held at the Boothall Inn, every alternate Monday.
Ancient Order of Foresters.- Court Maiden No. 2,819, held at the Foresters' hall, Old Harp Inn, Widemarsh street, every alternate Monday; Court Energy, No. 3,076, held at the Maidenhead Inn, Eign street, every alternate Monday.
Benevolent Society for Relieving the Sick and Aged Poor.- Miss King, Treasurer; Miss Webb, Secretary.
British and Foreign Bible Society (Herefordshire Auxiliary).- Rev. John, Venn, M.A., President; Messrs. R. Jennings and W. Evans, Hon. Secretaries; depot at Mr. Richard Elliott's, St. Peter street.
British Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews.- Mrs. Collins, High town, Secretary.
Church Defence Institution.- Rev. Alfred T. Lee, LL.D., D.C.L., 25 Parliament street, London, Secretary; Rev. A.J. Capel, B.A., Eign lodge, and J.T. Owen Fowler, Esq., 1 St. John street, Hereford, Local Secretaries.
Church Missionary Society (Herefordshire Association).- The Right Rev, the Lord Bishop of Hereford, Patron; Rev. John Venn, M.A., President; Rev. John Edmund Cheese, Bosbury Vicarage, Ledbury, Hon. Secretary; Rev. G.B. Bennett, M.A., St. Peter's, Hereford, Treasurer; Rev. R. Polwhele, Avenbury Vicarage, Bromyard, and Rev. G.B. Bennett, St. Peter's, Hereford, District Secretaries; Mr. H. Walmsley, 6 High town, Hereford, Assistant Secretary.
Church Pastoral Aid Society (Hereford branch).- Rev. R. Underwood, M.A., Local Hon. Secretary and Treasurer.
Church Schoolmasters' and Schoolmistresses' Benevolent Institution (Herefordshire branch).- The Lord Bishop of Hereford, President; Rev. W. Poole, Hentland Vicarage, Ross, Patron; Rev. Henry W. Phillott, Staunton-on-Wye Rectory, Hereford, Treasurer; Mr. E.W. Jones, Leominster, Secretary.
City Mission.- Charles Brunsdon, Esq., Hon. Secretary and Treasurer; Mr. George Chandler, City Missionary.
Conservative Registration Association.
County Congregational Association.- Rev. James O. Hill, Secretary.
English Church Union (Hereford branch).- Rev. Sir Henry W. Baker, Bart., M.A., Monkland, Leominster, Chairman; George Barter, Esq., M.A., Vice-Chairman; Rev. J.R.G. Taylor, M.A., Hon. Secretary.
Hereford City and County Benefit Building Society, offices, 138 Widemarsh street.- Mr. Philip Ralph, President; T.W. Garrold, Esq., Messrs. Henry Clarkson and James Bowers, Vice-Presidents; James Davies, Esq., Solicitor; Mr. William Earle, Secretary.
Hereford Charitable Society for the Relief of Lying-in Women.- Mrs. Parry, Broomy Hill, Treasurer; Miss C. Thompson, Manager; Mrs. Robinson, King street, Matron.
Hereford Clerical Charity for the Relief of distressed Widows and Orphans of Clergymen.- Rev. Thomas West, M.A., Fownhope Vicarage, Hereford, Treasurer for the Archdeaconry of Hereford; The Venerable Archdeacon Waring, Treasurer for the Archdeaconry of Ludlow; G. Townshend Smith, Esq., Hon. Secretary and Conductor of Musical Festival.
Hereford Conservative Working Men's Association, 101 East street. Evan Pateshall, Esq., M.P., Chairman; Mr. Charles W. Vaughan, Hon. Secretary; Mrs. C. Davies, Resident Attendant.
Hereford Cricket Club.- F. Wilding, Esq., and W. Carless, Esq., Joint Secretaries.
Hereford Diocesan Board of Education (Archdeaconry of Hereford).- The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Hereford, President; James Rankin, Esq., Bryngwyn, Hereford, Hon. Treasurer; Rev. Douglas Seaton, M.A., Goodrich Vicarage, Ross, Hon. Secretary; Rev. Thomas Littleton Wheeler, jun., M.A., Mount Cottage, Tenbury, Diocesan Inspector of Schools; educational depot at Messrs. Jakeman & Carver's, 4 High town, Hereford.
Hereford Diocesan Church Building Society (established 1839).- The Lord Bishop of Hereford, President; Edward Smalley Hutchinson, Esq., Longworth, Hereford, Treasurer; Rev. George Hollis Clay, M.A., Aston Rectory, Ludlow, Hon. Secretary; Thomas Nicholson, Esq., F.I.B.A., Diocesan Architect. (Meetings of the Committee are held in the College, Hereford, on the first Wednesday in the months of January, April, July, and October.)
Hereford Diocesan Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.- Rev. Henry W. Phillott, M.A., Staunton-on-Wye Rectory, Treasurer of District Committee; Rev. H.W. Phillott and Rev. W.C. Fowle, Joint Secretaries; the depot of the society is at Messrs. Jakeman & Carver's, 4 High town, Hereford.
Hereford Friendly Society (meetings held every third Thursday at the Green Dragon Hotel).- Mr. John Barnes, Secretary.
Hereford Horticultural Society.- H.C. Beddoe, Esq., Chairman; Mr. Henry Edmonds, 32 Broad street, Secretary.
Hereford Ladies' Bible Association.- Miss Venn, President; Mrs. Bennett, Vice-President; Miss Thompson, Treasurer; Miss Cunningham and Miss Lee, Secretaries.
Hereford Society for Aiding the Industrious, office, 50 Commercial street.- Lieut.-Colonel John Ernle Money-Kyrle, Treasurer; Rev. John Venn, M.A., and Charles Brunsdon, Esq., Hon. Secretaries; Mr. William Leis, Manager and Secretary; Mr. Francis W. Hollings, Accountant. Office hours, 10 till 5 daily, and on Wednesday and Saturday evenings from 6 till 8.
Hereford Society for Aiding the Industrious (Model Cottages and Gardens and Pig and Poultry Farm Department).- Mr. George Henry With, F.R.A.S., Scientific Secretary; Mr. Thomas Tranter, Manager, Baths street.
Herefordshire Agricultural Society (established 1798). -The Right Hon. Lord Bateman, Shobdon court, President; Thomas Duckham, Esq., Baysham court, Ross, Secretary.
Herefordshire Chamber of Agriculture.- (The discussional meetings are held at the Free Library, Broad street.) George Clive, Esq., M.P., Perrystone, Ross, President; John Bennett, Esq., The Park (Fog), Ross, Vice-President; Charles Gill Martin, Esq., Gloucestershire Bank, Hereford, Treasurer; Mr. J.P. Brown, Secretary.
Herefordshire Bow Meeting.- J.A.F. Suter, Esq., National Provincial Bank, Treasurer; Mr. George F. Turner, Secretary.
Herefordshire Choral Society, Free Library.- The Lord Bishop of Hereford, Patron; Rev. Custos Goss, Chairman of Committee; George Townshend Smith, Esq., Hon. Conductor and Treasurer; J.C. Aston, Esq., Secretary; Mr. Winter, Librarian. Rehearsals are held in the Woolhope Club room every Friday evening.
Herefordshire Choral Union.- The Lord Bishop of Hereford, President; The Ven. Lord Saye and Sele, Vice-President; Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., M.A., Mus. Doe., Honorary Visitor of Choirs; Rev. Henry W. Phillott, M.A., Staunton Rectory, Hereford, Treasurer; Rev. Sir George H. Cornewall, Bart., Moccas Court, Honorary Secretary; Mr. J. Charlesworth, Monkland, Leominster, Organising Choir Master.
Herefordshire Friendly Society, office, 50 Commercial street.- C. Brunsdon and W. Evans, Esqs., Hon. Secretaries; Mr. Edwin Day, Assistant Secretary; J.T. Owen Fowler and J. Corbett, Esqs., Hon. Auditors.
Herefordshire Hunt.- (The kennels are at White Cross, about a mile from the city.) Frederick Platt, Esq., Sugwas Court, Hereford, and T. Freke Lewis, Esq., Abbey Dore Court, Hereford, Masters; Thomas Llanwarne, Esq., and Edward Knight Jakeman, Esq., Honorary Secretaries.
Herefordshire Hunt Club.- Nicholas Sirrell Wynn, Esq., Secretary and Treasurer.
Herefordshire Philharmonic Society (established 1864).- The Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., M.A., Mus. Doe., President; C. Wren Hoskyns, Esq., Vice-President;. Rev. Henry Cooper Key, M.A., F.R.A.S., Hon. Librarian; John Hungerford Arkwright, Esq., Hon. Secretary; Charles Gill Martin, Esq., Hon. Treasurer; Henry Leslie, Esq., Hon. Conductor. In addition to the above, the following gentlemen comprise the Acting Committee:-W.S. Broadwood, Esq., Rev. Sir G. Cornewall, Bart., Rev. W.D.V. Duncombe, Marcellus Newton, Esq., Rev. J. Hampton, Major Peploe, M.P., and Rev. C.A.F. Kuper.
Herefordshire Rifle Association.- Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Heywood, Ocle court, President; Mr. Arthur Thompson, St. Nicholas St., Hereford, Sec.
Herefordshire Society in London (established in 1710 for the purpose of apprenticing boys born of Herefordshire parents).- The Lord Lieutenant of the County, President; Michael Biddulph, Esq., M.P., Treasurer; George Frederick Cooke, Esq., 3 Serjeant's Inn, London, W.C., Hon. Secretary; Mr. Edwin Day, Local Collector.
Herefordshire Society for the Protection and Rescue of Young Women.- Mrs. A. Meredith, Rose cottage, Aylestone hill, Hon. Secretary.
Independent Order of Good Templars.- "Star of Hope", No. 1463, meet at the Primitive Methodist school-room, St. Owen street, every Monday evening; "Wye Bridge", No. 3432, meet at the Mission hall, New Market street, every Wednesday evening; "True to the End", No. 2463, meet at the Baptist chapel, Commercial road, every Friday evening.
Ladies' Association for the Promotion of Female Education among the Heathen.- Mrs. Atlay, The Palace, Hereford, Treasurer; Mrs. Berkeley Scudamore-Stanhope, Byford vicarage, Hereford, Hon. Secretary.
Liberal Registration Association.- Mr. Henry Mills, 15 Church st., See.
Lord Scudamore's Charity (meetings held half-yearly in January and July).- Mr. Charles Caldicott, Secretary.
Missionary Studentship Association. (Archdeaconry of Hereford).- The Lord Bishop of Hereford, President; Rev. W.P. Hopton, M.A., Bishop's Froome vicarage, Bromyard, Treasurer; Rev. W.C. Fowle, Brinsop, Hereford, Hon. Secretary.
National Society.- Rev. Alfred J. Capel, B.A., Eign lodge, Hereford, District Secretary and Treasurer; the depot is at Messrs. Jakeman & Carver's, 4 High town.
Palladian Lodge (No. 120) of Freemasons (meetings held at the Green Dragon Hotel monthly, except from June to September both inclusive).- Rev. Joseph Hordern Jukes, M.A., Hon. Secretary.
Royal Arch Palladian Chapter (No. 120) of Freemasons (meetings held at the Green Dragon Hotel quarterly).- Rev. J.H. Jukes, M.A., Hon. Secretary.
Religious Tract Society for Hereford.- Rev. J. Venn, M.A., Hon. Sec.
St. Peter's Young Men's Christian Association (held in a room over the vestry of St. Peter's church).- Rev. G.B. Bennett, M.A., President; Mr. Frederick Howlett, Hon. Secretary. Bible class on Sundays at 3 p.m., and on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays at 8.15 p.m.
Servants' Home and Free Registry Society (established 1865), 75 Commercial road.- Mrs. Meredith, Hon. Secretary; The Gloucestershire Banking Company, Treasurers; Susannah Reems, Matron.
Society of Antiquaries.- Rev. Francis , Tebbs Havergal, M.A., Upton Bishop vicarage, Ross, and George Strong, Esq., The Chase, Ross, Local Secretaries.
Society for Assisting Poor Families with Clothing.- Mrs. Hanbury, Castle street, Treasurer; Miss Smith, 2 St. Ethelbert street, Storekeeper.
Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews.- The Lord Bishop of Hereford, Patron; Rev. Richard Powell, M.A., St. James' vicarage, Treasurer and Secretary.
Society for Promoting the Employment of Additional Curates:-Rev. James E. Brown, B.A., 1 Priory terrace, Holmer, District Organizing Secretary; Rev. Thomas Shackleton, M.A., Belvedere house, Hereford, Honorary Organizing Secretary for the Archdeaconry of Hereford; Rev. T. Ayscough Smith, M.A., Tenbury vicarage, Honorary Organizing Secretary for the Archdeaconry of Ludlow; The National Provincial Bank of England, Treasurers.
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.- Rev. E. B. Hawkshaw, B.A., Weston rectory, Ross, Organizing Secretary for the Archdeaconry of Hereford; Rev. Henry W. Phillott, M.A., Staunton-on-Wye, Treasurer.
West of England Rose Show.- J.H. Arkwright, Esq., Hampton court, Leominster, Chairman; Rev. C.H. Bulmer, M.A., Credenhill rectory, Hereford, Hon. Secretary; Charles Gill Martin, Esq., Hon. Treasurer; Mr. Henry Edmonds, Hereford, Assistant Secretary.
Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club (meetings held at the Free Library, Broad street).- T. Algernon Chapman, Esq., M.D., Burghill, President; Arthur Thompson, Esq., Hereford, Secretary; Thomas Cam, Esq., Treasurer; J.T. Owen Fowler, and James Davies, Esqs., Auditors.
Wye Fishery District.- The following gentlemen are the Conservators for the year 1876-77:- John Hungerford Arkwright, Esq., Hampton court, Leominster; Edward Otto Partridge, Esq., Easton court, Tenbury; James Frederick Symonds, Esq., Okeleigh, Broomy hill, Hereford.
Young Men's Christian Association (Hereford branch), 138 Widemarsh street.- Rev. G.H. Kirwood, M.A., President; Mr. Reginald Jennings, Hon. Treasurer; Mr. George P. Palmer, Hon. Secretary; Mr. W. Hughes, Assistant Secretary.
Head-quarters : Militia Barracks and Stores, Harold street, Bartonsham.
Honorary Colonel.- The Right Hon. Lord Bateman, Shobdon court (1864).
Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant.- J. Berington, 22 Quai Sprinola, Bruges, Belgium (1866).
Majors.- T.G. Peyton, The Bartons, near Malvern (1866); R.S. Cox, Broxwood court, Pembridge (1868).
Brevet Majors.- R.F. Webb, Donnington hall, Ledbury; John M. Browne, Hall court, Ledbury; Thomas M. Bennett, Monkhall, Much Dewchurcb, Hereford (1876).
Captains.- H.W. Willett, Malpas, Newport (1868); W.C. Seymour, Willmount castle, Queenstown, Cork (1873); G.A. Goldwyer, The Havens, Haverfordwest (1873); H.P. Williams, Greenfields, Rhayader, Radnor (1874); T.W.J. Downes, Munstone house, Holmer, Hereford (1875).
Instructor of Musketry.- Captain Edward P. Clark (late Lieutenant 62nd Foot), 6 Edward street, Bath (1874).
Lieutenants.- C: Goldsworthy, Grafton park, Hereford (1871); H.B. K. Davies, Croft castle, Leominster (1873).
Sub-Lieutenants.- Hon. W.S.B. Hanbury, Shobdon court, Leominster (1874); E. Scudamore Lucas, Kentchurch court, Hereford (1874); H.H. D. Wolff, Boscombe tower, Bournemouth (1874); Lord Rodney, Berrington hall, Leominster (1875); R.W.H. Macdonald (1875); Charles E. Dashwood (1875); Edwyn F. Scudamore-Stanhope, Holme Lacy house (1875).
Surgeon-Major.- J. Morris, F.R.C.S., Hampton park, Hereford (1846).
Assistant Surgeon.- R. Thomason, M.R.C.S., Drybridge house, Hereford (1855).
Captain and Adjutant.- Chester Doughty (late Captain 23rd Foot), Hampton park, Hereford (1868).
Sergeant-Major.- R. Verney, in Barracks.
Quartermaster-Sergeant.- T. Downey, in Barracks.
Sergeant Instructor of Musketry.- J. Beatty, 35 Castle place, Hampton street.
Paymaster-Sergeant.- W.R. Diamond, 87 Park street, Bartonsham.
O.R. Clerk.- Charles France, Hampton Bishop.
Drum-Major.- W.H. James, Clive street.
Hospital Sergeant.- A. Eves, 93 Eign road, Hereford.
Colour-Sergeants.- J. Busby, in Barracks; W. Preece, in Barracks; Ambrose Gothard, in Barracks.
Head-quarters, Hereford.- Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Heywood, Ocle court, Colonel Commandant; C. Meysey B. Clive, Major; Captain F. Napleton Dew, Adjutant; Thomas Turner, Esq., Surgeon; Cambridge Cary Cocks, Esq., M.D., and Peter B. Gales, jun., Esq., M.D., Assistant Surgeons; Rev. John Goss, M.A., Hon. Chaplain; Arthur Thompson, Quartermaster-Sergeant; Sergeant Bracher, Sergeant-Major and Drill and Musketry Instructor, The Armoury.
No. 1 Company Hereford Rifle Volunteers.- J.A.F. Suter, Esq., Captain; J.T. Owen Fowler, Esq., and M.J. Scobie, Esq., Lieutenants; Edward Maddison, Quartermaster-Sergeant and Secretary; William Wigley, Colour-Sergeant.
No. 8 Company Hereford Rifle Volunteers.- James Rankin, Esq., Captain; F.R. Kempson, Esq., Lieutenant; John Davies, Quartermaster-Sergeant, William Alexander, Colour-Sergeant; Arthur Thompson, Secretary.
PUBLIC OFFICERS. Assessors and Auditors (appointed March 1st, 1876).- Messrs. William Boycott and James Davies, Revising Assessors; (Messrs. Alfred William Roberts and Wm. Thomas Stallard, Deputies); Messrs. Grenville Myer and George Walter Stephens, Auditors; Mr. George King, Mayor's Auditor.
Assistant Overseers.- Mr. Richard Stephens, Clifton villas, Bedford street, White Cross street (for All Saints, Holmer, and Huntington); Mr. Austin Herbert, 8 St. Nicholas street (for St. Nicholas, St. Martin, St. John, and Breinton); Mr. Charles Lerry, 86 Park street, Bartonsham (for St. Owen's); Mr. Charles Preece, Widemarsh street (for St. Peter and Tupsley).
Chairman of Quarter Sessions.- Geo. Clive, Esq., M.P., Perrystone, Ross.
Chapter Clerk of Hereford Cathedral.- James Henry Knight, Esq., N.P., 30 Castle street.
Chapter Clerk of the College of Vicars.- Henry Child Beddoe, Esq., N.P.
Chief Constable of the County.- Captain James Drummond Telfer, R.A., office, Shirehall.
City Surveyor.- Mr. George Cole, 143A Widemarsh street.
Clerk to the Assessment Committee.- Thomas Llanwarne, Esq., 8 St. John street.
Clerk to the Aubrey Charity.- James Davies, Esq., 132 Widemarsh st.
Clerk to the City Magistrates.- James Davies, Esq., 132 Widemarsh St.
Clerks to the Commissioners of Taxes.- John Gwynne James, Esq., 5 St. Peter street (for district of Hereford North); Mr. James Carpenter, Norfolk terrace, St. Martin street (for district of Hereford South and Peterchurch); Mr. James Yeld Stephens (for Hereford City).
Clerk to the County Finance Committee.- Mr. J. Corbett, County gaol.
Clerk to the Dore Union.- Thomas Llanwarne, Esq., 8 St. John street.
Clerk to the Hereford Union.- Thos. Llanwarne, Esq., 8 St. John St.
Clerk to Hereford and Dore Highway Boards.- Thomas Llanwarne, Esq.
Clerk to the Hereford and to the Dore Rural Sanitary Authorities.- Thomas Llanwarne, Esq., 8 St. John street.
Clerk of Indictments at Sessions.- James F. Symonds, Esq., 15 Bridge St.
Clerk to the Lieutenancy of the County.- James Frederick Symonds, Esq., 15 Bridge street.
Clerk to the Magistrates for Hereford Division.- John Gwynne James, Esq., 5 St. Peter street.
Clerk to the Magistrates for Dore Division.- Thomas Llanwarne, Esq., 8 St. John street.
Clerk of the Peace for the City.- Frederick Bodenham, Esq., 5 St. Peter street.
Clerk of the Peace for the County.- John Cleave, Esq., offices, Shirehall and 15 Bridge street.
Clerk to the Urban Sanitary Authority.- Joseph Carless, jun., Esq.
Clerk to the Visiting Justices of Hereford County Gaol.- Mr. James Corbett, 32 Commercial road.
Clerk to the Worm Brook Commissioners.- Thomas Llanwarne, Esq.
Collector of City Rates.- Mr. George Parsons, 24 St. Owen street.
Coroner for the City.- John Lambe, Esq., 35 Bridge street; Deputy, Peter Warburton, Esq., 23 St. Owen street.
Coroner for the County (Hereford district).- Thomas Llanwarne, Esq., 8 St. John street; Deputy, James F. Symonds, Esq., 15 Bridge street.
County Surveyor.- William Chick, Esq.; 20 East street.
County Treasurer.- Francis Lewis Bodenham, Esq., 1 Castle street.
Deputy Registrar of the Diocese.- Henry Child Beddoe, Esq., N.P., Cathedral close.
Deputy Steward to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners.- Henry Child Beddoe, Esq., N.P., Cathedral close.
Diocesan Architect.- Thomas Nicholson, Esq., F.I.B.A., 6 St. Peter St.
District Registrar of the High Court of Justice.- John James Reynolds, Esq., Offa street.
Distributor of Salmon Fishing Licences for Hereford District.- Mr. William Wigley, 5 St. Peter street.
Finance Clerk to the Corporation.- Mr. Thomas Smith, A.S.A.E., Guildhall, Widemarsh street.
Hereford Highway District.- Richard Hereford, Esq., Sufton court, Hereford, Chairman; Thomas Llanwarne, Esq., 8 St. John street, Clerk; Nicholas Sirrell Wynn, Esq., Treasurer; Mr. Joseph Carter, Awborough, Wellington, near Hereford, Surveyor for the Northern Division; Mr. Charles Nash, Hoarwithy, near Ross, Surveyor for the Southern Division.
High Bailiff of County Court.- John James Reynolds, Esq., Offa street.
High Sheriff of the County.- John Harding, Esq., Tattenhall lodge, Leamington; and The Lynch, Pembridge, R.S.O. (Herefordshire.)
Inspector of Weights and Measures.- Mr. D. Ovens.
Medical Officer of Health (under Hereford Rural and Urban Sanitary authorities).- H.V. Sandford, Esq., M.D., The Vinery, Aylestone hill.
Registrar of the Archdeaconries of Hereford and Ludlow.- Henry Child Beddoe, Esq., N.P., Cathedral close.
Registrar of County Court.- John James Reynolds, Esq., Offa street, corner of East street; Deputy Registrar, Joseph Carless, jun., Esq.
Registrar to the Dean of Hereford.- J.H. Knight, Esq., N.P., Castle st.
Registrar of Her Majesty's Court of Probate.- Thomas Clifton Paris, Esq., M.A., 27 Castle street.
Sanitary Inspector (under the Urban authority).- Mr. George Parsons, 24 St. Owen street.
Sanitary Inspector (under Rural authority).- Mr. Frederick Fowles.
Secretary and Actuary of the Savings Bank.- J.T. Owen Fowler, Esq.
Secretary to Hereford Building Society.- Mr. Wm. Earle, 27 Castle st.
Secretary to the Hereford General Infirmary.- J.T. Owen Fowler, Esq.
Secretary to the Lord Bishop.- Henry Child Beddoe, Esq., N.P., Cathedral close.
Secretary to the Municipal Charity Trustees.- John Lambe, Esq., 35 Bridge street.
Sheriff's Officer.- Mr. William Bottrell, 11 St. Nicholas street.
Stamp Distributor for Counties of Hereford and Radnor.- Jobn Gwynne James, Esq., 5 St. Peter street.
Steward and Chapter Clerk to the Custos and Vicars of Hereford Cathedral.- Henry Child Beddoe, Esq., N.P., Cathedral close.
Steward for the Manorial Courts of the Dean and Chapter.- James Henry Knight, Esq., N.P., 30 Castle street.
Sub-Distributor of Stamps.- Mr. Richard Elliott, 4A St. Peter street.
Superintendent of City Police.- Mr. John Davies, Gaol street.
Superintendent of County Police (Hereford and Abbey Dore divisions).- Mr. William Cope, Police station, Commercial road.
Superintendent Registrar of Births, Deaths, and Marriages for Hereford and Dore District.- Thomas Llanwarne, Esq., 19 East street.
Surveyor of Taxes.- W. Holroyd Price, Esq., Inland Revenue office, 30 Widemarsh street.
Town Clerk.- Joseph Carless, jun., Esq., 1 Offa street.
Under Sheriff.- James Frederick Symonds, Esq., 15 Bridge street.
RAILWAY COMPANIES, ETC. Great Western Railway Company's Offices, Barr's Court joint station.- George Charles Grover, Esq., District Superintendent (West Midland Section); John Ward Armstrong, Esq., Divisional Engineer; Mr. Thomas Smith, Manager of Goods Department; Mr. Henry Bond, Manager of Locomotive and Carriage Department.
Hereford, Hay, and Brecon Railway (worked by the Midland Railway Company), Moorfields station.- Henry Bolden, Esq., District Engineer.
Hereford, Ross, and Gloucester Railway.- Great Western Railway Co.
Midland Railway Company, Barton station.
Newport, Abergavenny, and Hereford Railway.- West Midland section,
G.W.R. Shrewsbury and Hereford Joint Railway.- Great Western and London and North-Western Railway Companies.
Worcester and Hereford Railway.- West Midland section, Great Western Railway.

RAILWAY STATIONS AND GOODS OFFICES. Barr's Court Joint Railway Station.- Mr. Wm. Thorne, Station Master.
Barton Railway Station (Great Western Railway, Midland Railway, and Hereford, Hay, and Brecon Railway), Eign street. -Mr. John Walker, Station Master.
Great Western Railway Company's Goods Office, Barr's Court station.- Mr. Thomas Smith, Goods Agent; Messrs. R.T. Smith & Co., Barr's Court station and 33 Broad street, Carting Agents.
Green Dragon Posting Company and Parcels Delivery Office, 43 Broad street.- E.K. Jakeman & Co., Parcels Agents to the Great Western Railway Company (see advertisement).
London and North-Western Railway Company's Goods Offices, Barr's Court station and 7 Widemarsh street.- Mr. Thomas James More, Agent.
Midland Railway Company's Goods Department, Moorfields.- Mr. Frederic Kerr, Goods Manager.
Midland Railway Company's Goods and Parcels Receiving Office, 138 Widemarsh street.- Charles Preece & Co., Agents.

CONVEYANCES. Omnibuses, Cabs, &c., from the Green Dragon Posting Company's Office and the Merton Hotel, attend the arrival and departure of all trains, and convey passengers to all parts of the city.

Hereford Cab Fares. The following are the fares charged for the hire of carriages licensed by the Corporation, by distance and for time respectively
  By Distance.- For One or Two Persons.£s.d.
Not exceeding one mile010
For each succeeding half mile or any part thereof006
For each passenger carried, above two, for the whole journey006
Back fares : Half the foregoing rates.
For Time.
For the first quarter of an hour010
For each succeeding quarter of an hour006

CARRIERS BY WATER TO Bristol, Gloucester, Newport, Cardiff, Swansea, Cork, Worcester, Birmingham, Stourbridge, Wolverhampton, and otherplaces in the Midlandand Western Counties and South Wales.- The Severn and Canal Carrying, Shipping, and Steam Towing Company, Limited, office, Canal Wharf; Mr. Alfred John Roberts, Agent.
Herefordshire and Gloucestershire Canal, office, Canal wharf.- The Great Western Railway Company, Proprietors; Philip Ballard, Esq., Manager; Mr. Thomas Maddox, Book-keeper.

Abbey DoreOak StablesWed. and Sat.Lucy Powell
Abbey DoreSpread EagleSaturday, 4 p.m.Mrs. E. Jakeman
AllensmoreOak StablesWed. and Sat.Lucy Powell
BartonSpread EagleSaturday, 4 p.m.Mrs. E. Jakeman
Blakemere Nelson InnWed. and Sat.George Pugh
Bredwardine WednesdaysMrs. Matthews
BrinsopMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.William Watkins
BurghillMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.Steph. Rowberry
BurghillMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.Edward Edwards
Burley GateHop Pole InnWed. and Sat.Henry Davis
Byford Red Lion InnWed. and Sat.Jonathan Burton
Canon PyonMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.Steph. Rowberry
Canon PyonMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.Edward Edwards
ClehongerButchers' ArmsWed. and Sat.Edward Alcock
Cowarne (Little)Hop Pole InnWed. and Sat.William Cross
Cowarne (Much)Coach and HorsesWed. and Sat.Thomas Bowcott
CredenhillMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.William Watkins
DilwynMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.Edward Edwards
DorstoneKing's HeadWed. and Sat.Thomas Maddox
Eggleton(Lower)Coach and HorsesWed. and Sat.Jas. Woodhouse
Eggletun Coach and HorsesSaturdaysJohn Bounds
FeltonHop Pole InnWed. and Sat.William Cross
King's AcreMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.William Watkins
King's Pyon Maidenhead InnWed. and Sat.Edward Edwards
KingstoneKing's HeadWed. and Sat.Thomas Maddox
Llanwarne Spread EagleWed. and Sat.George Woodhill
LlanwarneNelson InnWed. and Sat.John Meadmore
MadleyNelson InnWed. and Sat.George Pugh
MadleyButchers' ArmsWed. and Sat.Edward Alcock
Mansel LacyRed Lion InnWed. and Sat.Catherine Taylor
Mansel LacyMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.William Watkins
MoccasNelson InnWed. and Sat.George Pugh
Moreton JeffriesCoach and HorsesWed. and Sat.Thomas Bowcott
Newton (Yarkhl.)Coach and HorsesSaturdaysJohn Bounds
Norton CanonRed Lion InnWed. and Sat.Catherine Taylor
Norton CanonMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.William Watkins
Ocle PitchardCoach and HorsesWed. and Sat.Thomas Bowcott
Ocle PitchardHop Pole InnWed. and Sat.Henry Davis
OrcopNelson InnWed. and Sat.John Meadmore
OrcopBlack LionWed. and Sat.Charles Burleigh
OrcopSpread EagleWed. and SatGeorge Woodhill
PencombeHop Pole InnWed. and SatWilliam Cross
PeterchurchKing's HeadWed. and SatThomas Maddox
Pipe and LydeRoyal GeorgeWed. and SatLloyd and Bethell
Preston WynneHop Pole InnWed. and SatWilliam Cross
Preston-on-WyeNelson InnWed. and SatGeorge Pug h
Staunton-on-WyeRed Lion InnWed. and SatJonathan Burton
Stoke Lacy Coach and HorsesWed. and SatThomas Bowcott
Stoke LacyHop Pole InnWed. and SatHenry Davis
Stretton GrandisonCoach and Horses,
Commercial St.
Saturdays, 4 p.m.John Bounds
Stretton SugwasRed Lion InnWed. and SatJonathan Burton
ThruxtonOak StablesWed. and SatLucy Powell
TybertonNelson InnWed. and SatGeorge Pugh
UllingswickCoach and HorsesSaturday, 4 p.m.John Skerrett
UllingswickHop Pole InnWed. and SatWilliam Cross
VowchurchKing's HeadWed. and SatThomas Maddox
WellingtonRoyal GeorgeWed. and SatJohn Lloyd
WellingtonRoyal GeorgeWed. and SatJane Bethell
WeobleyMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.William Watkins
Withington Hop Pole InnWed. and Sat.William Cross
WithingtonHop Pole InnWed. and Sat.Henry Davis
Withington Coach and HorsesSaturdaysJohn Bounds
YazorMaidenhead InnWed. and Sat.William Watkins

OCR/Transcription by Rosemary Lockie in January 2005.

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