Pigot & Co's Commercial Directory for Derbyshire, 1835

“Buxton with the village of Fairfield and neighbourhood”

Transcriptions by Rosemary Lockie, © Copyright 1996

BUXTON is a market-town and chapelry, in the parish of Bakewell, and hundred of High Peak; 160 miles from London, 24 S.E. from Manchester, the like distance W. of Chesterfield, 22 N.E. from Matlock, 20 N.E. from Wirksworth, 10 S.W. from Castleton, & 6 S. from Chapel-en-le-Frith. Antiquaries agree that this was a Roman station, although unable to ascertain it name - in later days it was called Bawkenstanes, supposed to be a corruption of Bathanstanes, signifying bath stones; and one of the Roman roads still retain the name of Bathorn-gate.

The town lies in a valley, surrounded with hills of a most rugged aspect. It was formerly an insignificant village; but the goodness of the roads, its central situation, the salubrity of the air and the medicinal effects of its springs, have contributed to its improvement; and it is now a place of fashionable resort, with accommodations suitable to the number and quality of its visitors. The baths, which are six in number, and adjoin each other (though it distinct apartments), are at an Inn called 'the Hall'. The bath appropriated to the gentlemen is in a room about 30 feet long by 15 feet wide, and 15 feet high; the bath itself is about 26 feet long by 12 feet wide and at a medium of about four feet and a half in depth; at one side is a stratum of black limestone, through which the two principal springs rise. In the bath for the ladies, and in that appropriated to the use of the poor, the water issues through the crevices of the floor; the other two baths are private, for the use of persons of distinction. The springs, which are said to throw up about 60 gallons of water every minute, are capable of replenishing the baths in two hours an fifty minutes; the temperature of the water is in general from 81¼ to 81¾ of Fahrenheit. A new bath, to the S.W. of Buxton, on the Macclesfield old road, is now opened under the management of Mr. William Moore: a pleasant road through the fields leads to it.

The 'Hall', formerly the principal place of accomodation, is still much frequented by the nobility and gentry resorting to Buxton; the centre part of the house was erected nearly 400 years ago, - the front is manifestly of more modern date; it has numerous apartments and conveniences for the accomodation of invalids, being very near the drinking well, close to the baths, and all under one roof. Soon after it was completed, Dr. Jones gave a celebrity to the waters, by a treatise on their sanative qualities; it was entitled, "Buxtones Bathes Benefyte, which cureth most grievous sickness, never before published; compiled by John Jones, Physition, at the King's Mede, near Derby, &c. 1572". The latest work on this subject, is that by Mr. T. J. Page, Surgeon to the Buxton Bath Charity, entitled, "Brief Observations on the Buxton Waters, with a few general directions for their use", published by Mr. Moore, bookseller, in the Crescent.

The usual place for drinking the water is at St. Ann's well, where an elegant modern little building, but in the antique style, has been erected for the accommodation of the visitants; here the water is conveyed from the original spring, through a grit-stone channel, into a white marble basin: this well is regarded as one of the seven wonders of the Peak, from the circumstance that both hot and cold water may be obtained within twelve inches of each other, from a double pump, situate on the side of this building.

The late Duke of Devonshire erected a magnificent range of buildings, in the form of a crescent; at one end of the Crescent is the 'Great Hotel', - the other end is the 'St. Ann's Hotel'; the whole of the front of this range is faced with fine free-stone, which was procured from a quarry about two miles distant. In the centre of the Crescent, a promenade and news-room, accessible to strangers for a trifling consideration, has been lately opened. At the back of the Crescent are the stables, an extensive pile, of an octagon form on the outside, but circular within the yard, in which is a riding-house, where the company take exercise on horseback when the weather renders shelter necessary. These buildings, with the Crescent, were erected by the Duke of Devonshire, who is said to have expended £120,000. in the completion of the whole.

Over St. Ann's Cliffs, opposite the Crescent, a fine rising lawn has been laid out with very great taste where the company promenade. The theatre is a small plain building, situate in the Hall bank. The government of the town is in a constable, but there are no courts held here. About two miles distant is a coal-mine; and there are several lead-mines in the neighboorhood, but none worked to any extent.

The church, which is dedicated to St. John, is situate at the west end of the Crescent; the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Duke of Devonshire; the present incumbent is the Rev. George Trevor Spencer. The other places of worship ate chapels for the methodists, Calvinists and unitarians. Here is a free-school, to which all persons residing within the chapelry have the privilege of sending their children. A library has been established by Lady Gosford, which has been much increased by the voluntary contributions of visiters, for the use of poor invalids, and the inhabitants of Buxton and neigh neighbourhood. There is also a good circulating library, kept by Mr. Moore, in the Crescent. The 'Buxton Bath Charity', for the relief of the diseased poor, supported by the patronage and contributions of many distinguished individuals, aided also by the visiters to the baths, is a most excellent institution; from September, 1828, to September 1829, its beneficial influence was experienced by upwards of 800 individuals.

The rivers Wye, Dane, Dove and Goyte, have their sources in the mountain called Axe-edge. The Cromford High Peak railway passes about a mile hence, on to Whaley, where it meets the Peak Forest canal. 'Poole's Hole,' an immense cavern under Colt-moss Hill, about one mile S.W. of Buxton, is a great natural curiosity: it run in a horizontal direction for the length of 700 yards,- in some parts it is 180 feet wide, and 120 feet high; various chambers and pillars compose this vast natural excavation, which are denominated, according to the fancied resemblances they bear, as, Poole's Chamber Cellar, Saddle and Woolsack; the Lion, the Lady's Toilet, Pillion and Curtain and a variety of other appellations bestowed by the guides. Mary Queen of Scots, it is said, penetrated far into the cavern, from which circumstance one of the pillars takes its name; and it is recorded that she applied to Buxton, Caesar's lines upon Feltria, with some alteration, and thus translated,-

"Buxton, whose fame thy milk-warm waters tell,
Whom I, perhaps, no more shall see, farewell."

The natural scenery around Buxton is diversified, but principally hilly and barren, with other portions in a state of cultivation - presenting some pleasing views and romantic landscapes; and the country throughout this district may be said to be progressively improving. The market, which is held on Saturday, is pretty well supplied; there are five fairs, viz. the 6th of February, 1st of April, 8th May, the second Monday in September and 28th October, for horses, cattle, pigs, cloth, earthenware, and iron and wood wares. The number of inhabitants, in 1821, was 1,036, and in 1831, 1,211.

FAIRFIELD is a chapelry, in the parish of Hope, in the same hundred as Buxton, 1 mile N.N.E. from that town. Here is an ancient church, dedicated to St. Peter; the living is in the gift of trustees residing in the parish and the present incumbent is the Rev. Geo. Mounsey. On a large tract of waste ground, an excellent round course has been formed, where horse races take place. on the Wednesday and Thursday in the week after the meeting at Newton ith' Willows; for the accommodation of visiters, a handsome stand has been erected. From this village, the best panoramic view of Buxton crescent, &c. is obtained. The population returns of this chapelry present a singular coincidence, the number of inhabitants being 482, at the several censuses taken in 1811, 1821 and 1831.

POST OFFICE:- Crescent. William Moore, Post Master:- Letters from MANCHESTER, and all parts, arrive every afternoon at half past five, and are despatched every morning at five:- Letters for LONDON and all parts of the SOUTH, are forwarded to STOCKPORT in time for the LONDON mail:- Letters from LONDON, &c are received at the same place, by the Mail on its return to Buxton.
N.B. The BUXTON Mail leaves MANCHESTER every day at one, waiting at STOCKPORT the arrival of the LONDON Mail.

GENTRY AND CLERGY.
Barker Samuel, esq. Staden
Barker William, esq. Staden
Goodwin Mr. George, Market place
Heacock Philip, esq. Square
Hutton Thomas, esq. Wye cottage
Jones Mr. Charles, Spring gardens
Longden Miss, Foxlow
Mounsey Rev. George, Fairfield
Newton George William, esq. Aspin Shaw
Poulson Mr. Geo. Burbage
Spencer Rev. George Trevor, Edgemoor
Stamp Rev. William, Market place
Wotton Miss Mary, Spring gardens

ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS.
Abel Charles, Market place
Beech William, Market place
FREE SCHOOL, Old Church:- Rev. George Mounsey, head master;
John Allen, second master
Swann Joseph, Fairfield

BAKERS & FLOUR DEALERS.
Brandreth Jos. Macclesfield Old road
Henshall Samuel, London road
Hobson George, London road

BLACKSMITHS.
Johnson William, Hotel stables
Littlewood Richard, London road
Lomas Robert, Church lane
Watson Henry, Fairfield

BOOKSELLERS & STATIONRS.
Clayton John, Spring gardens
Moore William (and circulating library) Crescent

BOOT AND SHOE MAKERS.
Chapman Samuel, Yeomans lane
Clayton John, Irongate
Clayton Ralph, Spring gardens
Clayton Thomas, Market place
Deakin William, Market place
Goodwin John, Yeoman's lane
Hobson Edmund, London road
Johnson Edwd. Macclesfield Old rd
Pidcock Joseph, Market place
Smith William, Hall bank

BUTCHERS.
Clough Mary, Market place
Gregory James, Spring gardens
Gregory Richard, Spring gardens
Lees Matthew, jun. Market place
Ollerenshaw James, London road
Pidcock Gilbert, Market place
Pidcock John, Spring gardens
Wainwright Joseph, Spring gardens
Yates William, Market place

CONFECTIONERS.
Bennett Mary, Spring gardens
Hoyle Obadiah, Spring gardens

GROCERS AND DEALERS IN SUNDRIES.
Abel Ann and Mary, Market place
Birch John, Spring gardens
Birch Mary, Market place
Clayton Edward, Fairfield
Clayton James, Market place
Gregory William, Burbage
Hobson George, London road
Howard Thomas, Fairfield
Jones John, London road
Land John, London road
Lomas James, Market place
Oldfield William, Spring gardens
Turner John, London road
Wild Edward, Fairfield

HAIR DRESSRS & PERFUMRS.
Faulkner James, Spring gardens
Perkins Isaac, London road
Porter Richard, London road

INNS AND HOTELS.
Angel, Ann Wood, Spring gardens
Eagle, Sarah Wood, Market place
George, Mary Royston, Square
Great Hotel, Wm. Shaw, Crescent
Grove, George Wood, Irongate
St. Ann's, Philip Moore, Crescent
Shakspeare, Thos. Barlow, Spring gardens
The Hall, Mary Bates, Square

JOINERS.
Barrow James, Spring gardens
Hibbert John, Market place
Mortin Joseph, Market place
Pidcock Charles, Spring gardens
Potts William, Church lane
Turner John, Market place
Turner Samuel, Spring gardens

LINEN, &c. DRAPERS.
Greenwood John, Spring gardens
Jones John, London road
Martin Joseph, Yeoman's lane

LODGING HOUSES - PRIVATE.
Abel Ann and Mary, Market place
Barrow James, Spring gardens
Bates Mary Elizabeth, Hall bank
Birch John, Spring gardens
Boam James, Square
Bower George, Spring gardens
Bower George, Hall bank
Brandreth Abraham, Spring gardens
Brandreth Jos. Macclesfield Old road
Broomhead Joseph, Square
Chambers John Bates, Spring grdns
Clayton John, Spring gardens
Clayton Joseph, Hall bank
Clayton Joseph, jun. Spring gardens
Clayton Mary, Hall bank
Clayton Micah, Spring gardens
Clayton Ralph, Spring gardens
Clayton Thomas, Market place
Cocks James, Spring gardens
Cottrill Joseph, Fairfield
Crowder Charles, Hall bank
Evans Elizabeth, Hall bank
Evans William, Spring gardens
Francis William, Spring gardens
Gell Emma, London road
Goodwin George, Spring gardens
Goodwin John, Yeoman's lane
Greenwood John, Spring gardens
Gregory Henry, Market place
Gregory Richard, Spring gardens
Hobson Edmund, London road
Howard Thomas, Fairfield
Hoyle Joseph, Spring gardens
Hoyle Obadiah, Spring gardens
Irving John, Mount pleasant
Lees Matthew, Market place
Locker Robert, Spring gardens
Martin Joseph, Yeoman's lane
Moore Mary Ann, Crescent
Moore William, Crescent
Mortin Joseph, Market place
Muirhead Mary Ann, Square
Mycock Edward, Fairfield
Mycock Robert, Fairfield
Oakes Thomas, Spring gardens
Oldfield William, Spring gardens
Pidcock Charles, Spring gardens
Pidcock John, Spring gardens
Pidcock William, Spring gardens
Potts John, Market place
Potts Sarah, Spring gardens
Rayns Francis, Spring gardens
Sanders Thomas, Spring gardens
Swann Joseph, Fairfield
Swann Martha, Spring gardens
Swinscow Timothy, Spring gardens
Turner Joseph, Spring gardens
Turner Samuel, Spring gardens
Wainwright Joseph, London road
Wainwright Joseph, jun. Spring gdns
Wildgoose Richard, London road
Wood Hannah, Spring gardens

MILLINERS & DRESS MAKRS.
Glazbrook Mary, Irongate
Muirhead Mary Ann, Square
Potts Ann & Jane, Market place

PAINTERS, &c.
Broomhead Joseph, Square
Buckley George, Market place
Shepley George, Market place

PETRIFACTION WAREHSES.
Bower George, Hall bank
Crowder Charles, Hall bank
Evans Jonathan, Macclesfield road
Evans William, Spring gardens
Hall Joseph, Irongate
Locker Robert, Spring gardens
Noel Joseph, Irongate
Smith William, Hall bank
Webster Edward, Market place

SADDLERS.
Fidler Samuel, London road
Percival John, London road
Swann John, Spring gardens

STONE MASONS.
Ford James, Coat heath
Worrall John, Market place

SURGEONS.
Brandreth Abraham (& apothecary), Spring gardens
Buxton Thomas, Market place
Flint Peter, Spring gardens
Page Thomas Jackson, F.R.C.S. (and surgeon to the Buxton Bath
  Charity) Square

TAILORS.
Billinge Matth. Macclesfield Old rd
Clayton John, Irongate
Clayton Joseph, Hall bank
Clayton Joseph, Jun. Spring gardens
Clayton Micah, Square
Nowlan Hiram, Spring gardens
Pidcock William, Spring gardens

TAVERNS & PUBLIC HOUSES.
Bull's Head, Edward Watter, Fairfield
Cheshire Cheese, Elizabeth Brunt, Burbage
Cheshire Cheese, Sol. Mycock, London road
Duke of York, Wm. Simpson, Burbage
King's Head, Joseph Pidcock, Market pl
Queen's Head, Thos Fidler, London road
Red Lion, Ann Holme, Burbage
Seven Stars, Sarah Percival, London road
Shoulder of Mutton, Bagshaw Mycock, London road
Sun, John Bennett, London road
Swan, Joseph Ward, Fairfield
White Lion, Timothy Swinscow, Spring gdns

Retailers of Beer.
Badger William, Market place
Brunt George, Fairfield
Hobson George, London road
Lees Matthew, Market place
Lomas Martha, Church lane
Ollerenshaw Peter, Macclesfield Old road
Swinscow Timothy, Spring gardens

TOY DEALERS.
Bower George, Hall hank
Faulkner James, Spring gardens

WATCH & CLOCK MAKERS.
Bower George, Hall bank
Bright and Sons, Crescent

WHEELWRIGHTS.
Brunt George, Fairfield
Brunt Thomas, London road
Kitchen Samuel, Church lane

Miscellaneous.
Barrow Jas. cabinet maker, Spring gardens
BATHS:- Natural Warmth, James Boam, bath keeper, Crescent.
New Warm, Vapour and Shower, William Nall, bath keeper, Crescent.
Chalybeate, Mr. William Moore, Macclesfield Old road
Bright and Sons, jewellers & fine cutlers, Crescent
BUXTON BATH CHARITY, Philip Hescock, esq. treasurer;
  Thomas Jackson Page, surgeon; Abraham Brandreth, secretary
Chambers John Bates, ironmonger, &c. Spring gardens
Crowder Charles, hosier, Hall bank
Irving John & Son, professors of music, Mount pleasant
Orme Daniel, landscape painter, Hallbank
Rayns Francis, basket makr, Spring gdns
SHEFFIELD FIRE, &c. OFFICE, Spring gardens:- John Swann, agent
Swann William, cheese factor, Fairfield
THEATRE, Hall bank
Vernon Joseph, overseer, London road
Williamson and Co. gunpowder manufacturers, Fernilee
Worrall Charlotte, straw hat maker, Irongate

COACHES.
To LONDON, the Peveril of the Peak (from Manchester) calls at the
Angel Inn, every afternoon at three; goes thro' Bakewell, Matlock
Bath, Belper, Derby, Loughborough, Leicester, Market Harborough,
Kettering, Higham Ferrers, Bedford, and Hitchen:- and the Bruce
calls at the Grove, every afternoon at three; goes same route as
above to Leicester, and thence through Northampton, &c.
To MANCHESTER, the Bruce (from London) calls at the Shakespeare,
every afternoon at two:- the Lord Nelson (from Nottingham) every
day at half-past twelve:- and the Lady Nelson calls at the Angel,
every day at the same time:- the Peveril of the Peak (from London)
calls at the same Inn, every afternoon at two:- & a Coach from the
Angel, the Eagle & the King's Head Inns, every morning at eight,
during the season; all go thro' Disley, Stockport, &c.
To MATLOCK BATH, the Peak Guide, from the Angel, every afternoon at
two, during the season.
To NOTTINGHAM, the Lord Nelson (from Manchester) calls at the
Shakspear, every day at half-past twelve:- & the Lady Nelson, call
at the Angel, every day at the same time; both go thro' Bakewell,
Matlock Bath, Derby &c.
To SHEFFIELD, the Enterprise (from the Angel, every morning at
eight:- and the Sun, from the King's Head, every afternoon (Sunday
excepted) at one (both during the season) go through
Bakewell, Baslow, &c.

CARRIERS.
To CHAPEL-EN-LE-FRITH. Isaac Creswell (horse post) from the White
Lion, daily.
To CHESTERFIELD and MACCLESFIELD, Moses Longden, from the White
Lion, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday:- and William Robinson,
from the New-road, every Tuesday and Friday, during summer, and
Tuesday in winter.
To LEEK, John Brunt, from the White Lion, every Friday.
To MANCHESTER. Isaac Creswell (horse post) from the White Lion
daily:- and William Bird and Henry Buxton, from the Cheshire
Cheese, every Wed.
To SHEFFIELD, William Smith and William Mosley, from the White
Lion, every Monday and Wednesday.

Description(s) from Pigot and Co's Commercial Directory for Derbyshire, 1835.
Transcribed by Rosemary Lockie in May 1996.

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