Leominster, Herefordshire

Extract from Littlebury's Directory and Gazetteer of Herefordshire, 1876-7
with Private and Commercial Residents

Transcribed by Rosemary Lockie, © Copyright 2005

LEOMINSTER is an ancient parliamentary and municipal borough and market town, pleasantly situated in a fertile valley watered by the river Lugg, and the brooks Pinsley and Kenwater. It is a polling place for county and borough elections; is the head of a poor-law union, county court district, and petty sessional division; and is an important railway station on the Shrewsbury and Hereford joint line, being the junction of the Leominster and Kington railway. It is distant 156 miles W.N.W. of London, 12½ N. of Hereford, 11½ S. of Ludlow, 14 E. of Kington, 12 S.W. of Tenbury, 12 W.N.W. of Bromyard, 26 W.N.W. of Worcester, 24½ N.N.W. of Ross, 26½ N.W. of Ledbury, 47 S.W. of Birmingham, 42½ N.W. of Gloucester, 50 from Cheltenham, 80 from Bristol, 92 from Bath, 38½ from Shrewsbury, 97 from Liverpool, 80 from Chester, 118 from Manchester, 114 from Oxford, and 120 from Reading. The parish of Leominster, which is locally situate in the hundred of Wolphy, comprises, in addition to the borough, the four townships of Eaton, Hennor, and Stretford; Broadward, Brierley, and Wharton; Newtown, Stagbatch, and Cholstrey; Ivington, Hyde Ash, and Wintercott; the extreme length of the parish being upwards of seven miles. The area is 8,086 statute acres; the parish is divided into two parts, viz., the In-parish and the Out-parish; the borough of Leominster is conterminous with the parish. A portion of the out-parish, comprising 5,401 acres, chiefly in the townships of Ivington, Hyde Ash, Wintercott, and Wharton, was severed for ecclesiastical purposes in 1844, and designated "The district Chapelry of St. John, Ivington". The following table exhibits the comparative number of houses and population of the parliamentary and municipal borough of Leominster at each of the censuses 1801-1871:-

Period.  No. of
Houses.
No. of Persons. Total
Population.
Males.Females.
1801Borough and Parish6871,3491,6703,019
1811""7301,4681,7703,238
1821""7711,6731,9783,651
1831""8861,9962,3044,300
1841""9652,2362,6804,916
1851""1,1832,4882,7265,214
1861""1,1932,7062,9525,658
1871""1,3292,8203,0435,863

The actual population of the town, as shown by the authoritative returns of the census, attests a gradually progressive increase during the seven decades of this century. In 1871 the in-parish or local board district contained 4,749 persons, 1,145 families or separate occupiers, and 1,016 inhabited houses. The out-parish contained 1,114 persons, 254 families or separate occupiers, and 236 inhabited houses. The subjoined table shows the population and number of houses contained in 1871 in the several wards within the borough:-

LEOMINSTER BOROUGH.*HOUSES.POPULATION.
Inha-
bited.
Uninha-
bited.
Build-
ing.
Persons.Males.Females.
Wards : Cross Pinsley1027...549242307
"Etnam Street1886...895417478
"Middle Marsh15381104345359
"Nether Marsh1557...658331327
"Out-Parish2361611,114547567
"South Street & High Street4182921,9439381,005
High Street Municipal and Parliamentary Borough1,2527345,8632,8203,043

* The municipal and parliamentary limits are co-extensive.

HISTORY.- Although no particular mention is recorded in history of the first beginnings of the town of Leominster, yet there are reasons to suppose that its origin may probably be traced up to the 3rd and 4th centuries. The etymology of the name of Leominster has been a subject of controversy. Leland and Camden make "Llanlieni" the British name, which signifies a "Church of the nuns". Giraldus Cambrensis, in his narration of a journey through this part of the country, speaks of this town under the title of "Leonis Monasterium". According to Hill, the place derives its present appellation from its situation at the conflux of the rivers Lugg and Oney (the latter name appearing to be the original denomination of the stream now called the Pinsley); thus Lug-Oney-Minster, which he supposes to have been its former name, would be softened into Leonminster and Leominster.

In Blount's MSS. the following succinct account of the origin of the present name is given:- "And since we are upon the derivation of the town's name, though it is not much to the purpose, yet I am willing to cast in my own opinion. Domesday is the most ancient and authentic record we have, and, without doubt, the survey therein contained was made by persons of great knowledge and industry. There we find this town written, 'Leofminstre' (Rex tenet Leofminstre) quasi, the Minster or Church of Leof, the usual contraction of Leofric, who was Earl of the Mercians, of whom this country was, and under his dominion. He was both valiant and pious, for King Canntus made him Captain-General of his forces. He founded the great monastery of Coventry, and in all likelihood either built, or was benefactor to, this church and nunnery. Leland insinuates the church to have been built a little before the Conquest, so that whatever name the town went by before, it is probable, in deference to him, it was thenceforth called Leofminstre. Besides, we find this Leofric was, in the beginning of Edward the Confessor's reign, styled only 'Comes Herefordiensium', Earl of the Herefordshire men, and died in the thirteenth year of that king. Afterwards, as was usual in such names, the 'f' was left out, to render it more easy in pronunciation, so it became 'Leominster', or, more vulgarly, 'Lemster'".

The Rev. George Fyler Townsend, D.D., late vicar of Leominster, in his valuable "History of the Town and Borough of Leominster", says - "The probable solution of these various accounts is this: that there was a twofold name given to the town. It would be originally known, and is probably still known among the Welsh borderers, by the name given it in Camden, 'Llanlieni'. But as the language of this district gradually became more prescribed and settled, and as the English element obtained greater preponderance, the Welsh name of Llanlieni would, by common consent and usage, be superseded by the English name of Leofminstre. The word thus written in the Domesday Book, prepared by the order of William the Conqueror, seems to sanction its derivation from Leofric as being the most probable origin of the present name of Leominster".

Merwald, from whose religious foundation and residence, or castle, Leominster appears to have thus originated, was the son of Penda, King of Mercia, and brother of Peada, his successor, who was the first Christian monarch of that state. This religious institution, founded A.D. 660, in accordance with the custom of those days; was associated with miracles. The legend prevalent on this occasion is this: that Ealfrid, a priest of Northumbria, coming to the court of Merwald, footsore, faint, and weary, in the evening, sat himself down, and taking bread out of his wallet, ate it. While in the act of eating, a lion appeared, who, on his offering him bread, mildly took it from his hand. This legend, according to some persons, gives the name to Leominster.

In the year 980, a great part of the town, with the nunnery, was destroyed by the Danes. This invasion led to the establishment of a new religious institution, which in a few years obtained the patronage and protection of Leofric as its benefactor. This Leofric was a most influential nobleman, possessed of titles and large estates in Herefordshire. From these he amply endowed various churches and monasteries, particularly those of Wenlock, Coventry, and Leominster. In 1055 the town appears to have been fortified, and to have taken part in the wars at that time carried on against the Welsh, after which a garrison was put here by command of King Harold. In the reign of John the town suffered much by the incursions of William de Braos, Lord of Brecknock, who, about the year 1210, in the absence of the troops from this town, burst into it with great impetuosity, took possession of its extensive works and the inhabitants, and plundered and burnt the priory, together with the greatest part of the beautiful church, and reduced the town to a heap of ruins.

It was afterwards rebuilt, but suffered many subsequent misfortunes during the baronial wars. The unhappy reign of Henry VI. (A.D. 1423-60) was remarkable for the sanguinary contests of the rival houses of York and Lancaster. One important battle in the series was fought near this town, on the plain between Kingsland and Shobdon, February 2nd, Candlemas Day, 1460. The combat lasted, with various alternations of success, from sunrise to sunset. Lord Pembroke, the king's general, was at last routed. The victory declared itself in favour of the Earl of March; and thus the battle of Mortimer's Cross completed the gradually accumulative honours of the great border family of March, by encircling the brow of its chief with the garland of the crown. Edward IV. ever showed himself favourable to this border district, and held his court for some years at Ludlow. Speed and other historians have noticed a singular phenomenon which occurred on this day. Before the first charge was made, there appeared visibly in the firmament three suns, which, after a while, joined all together, and became as before. Drayton, in his "Miseries of Queen Margarite", has also mentioned it; and with true poetical licence, ascribed the victory to the invigorating hopes conceived from this phenomenon:-

" Three suns were seen that instant to appear,
Which soon again shut up themselves in one,
Ready to buckle as the armies were
Which this brave duke took to himself alone,
His drooping spirits somewhat seemed to cheer,
By his mishaps near lately overthrown:
So that thereby encouraging his men,
Once more he sets the white rose up again."

However unusual this phenomenon may be in this country, it is by no means strange or singular in some parts of the world. Travellers who have visited the Alps, the Andes, or the coasts of Greenland, inform us that mock suns are there often reflected upon an opposite cloud, and the ignorant spectator fancies two or three suns in the firmament at the same time. In an angle of two roads, leading from Mortimer's Cross to Kingsland, a few miles to the north-west of Leominster, a neat Tuscan pedestal has been erected in commemoration of this battle.

The priory was greatly despoiled by Owen Glendower, and the revenues of its territorial possessions appropriated to his own use. In 1539 the ancient priory of Leominster, which was the greatest of its kind in England, having larger revenues than some abbeys, was dissolved, John Glover being the last prior; and the manor belonging to the priory, with its appendages, was transferred to the Crown; its courts were abolished, and the inhabitants subjected to the control of the Lords Marchers. Shortly after this event the inhabitants of Leominster, in large numbers, supported the interests of the Princess Mary against those of the Lady Jane Grey, and effectively defeated the Protestant party, who had taken possession of the old British entrenchments at Cursneh Hill, on the banks of the Pinsley, killing nearly the whole of them in open combat, and summarily executing the few who survived the contest.

This blow was thought by Mary to be of such importance to her cause that she heaped individual honours and preferments on those who were instrumental in obtaining the victory, and granted to the inhabitants in general their first charter of incorporation, dated 28th March, 1553, by which charter the Court of Record was established, power was given to have a separate court of quarter sessions, a gaol, coroner, certain markets, annual fairs, and many other privileges; and the corporation were directed for ever to maintain a free grammar school out of the lands and hereditaments thereby granted unto them, but this foundation has been unlawfully lost.

In A.D. 1605, James I. gave, on his accession, a renewal of the charter, which contained these words: "Whereas from that time until now the borough and town aforesaid has in a wonderful manner been growing and flourishing, as well in wealth as in population, and yet doth flourish we, intending the better sale and dispersion of the fine wool produced in that neighbourhood into different parts of our kingdom, and being persuaded that the assemblage of buyers and sellers at that commoditie there may be a great encouragement of the woollen manufacture in this kingdom, do grant to the Bailiff, &c., to keep one other fair on the feast of Saint Bartholomew (August 24th), or, on the morrow of that day".

The wool of Leominster was, in the time of James I., at the height of its fame. Camden, in his "Britannia", vol. i. p. 690, thus speaks of it: "The greatest name and fame that it hath this day, is of the wooll in the territories round about it. Lemster Ore, they call it, which, setting aside that of Apulia and Tarentum, all Europe counteth it to be the very best". It affords, also, a fruitful source of allusion to the poets. Drayton speaks thus rapturously of it:-

"Where lives the man so dull, on Britain's farthest shore,
To whom did never sound the name of Lemster Ore?"

The year 1610 gave birth to a contagious disorder at Hereford, and during its continuance the summer assizes were held in this town. One cause then decided here shows the severity of the religious statutes then in force. This was the case of Roger Cadwallader, a Roman Catholic priest, a native of Stretton-Sugwas, near Hereford, who, for being ordained beyond sea, was condemned, executed, and quartered, his head being placed at the Town Hall, and his four quarters set up on different sides of the town, viz., Lug Bridge, South street, Bargates, and Etnam street.

During the Civil Wars that raged with such desolating fury between King Charles I. and the rebellious Parliament, the inhabitants of Leominster firmly adhered to the royal cause, and their loyal efforts to support it obtained the distinguished merit of extorting from their republican opponents the honourable appellation of Malignants. The town being destitute of fortifications, and commanded on all sides by eminences, was incapable of making any resistance to artillery; and therefore, in the year 1643, Sir William Waller, the Parliamentary general, took possession of it, after a smart skirmish, and finding it a post of consequence, as well on account of its population and opulence, as of its communication with Wales, placed in it a strong garrison of troops, commanded by the famous Colonel John Birch, who from his original profession of a pack-horse carrier rose by his military talents to the rank of a field officer, and was very instrumental in subduing this district to the Parliament.

In order to keep the town in subjection, and the inhabitants in awe, he erected a battery of cannon in the churchyard, which effectually destroyed the two covered ways that led from Broad street and the Priory to the Church, the painted glass windows of which were at the same time demolished by these fanatic warriors, and other considerable injury was done to the interior of this sacred fabric, by the plunder of its valuable contents, and the mutilation of its curious monuments. The town remained in the hands of the rebels until the year 1645, when King Charles, having compelled the Scots to raise the siege of Hereford, marched towards Leominster, which, on his near approach, was hastily deserted by its Parliamentary guests. No event of historical celebrity has since occurred here.

The manor of Leominster, with all its appurtenances, then valued at £666 19s. 8d. annually, was given by Henry I. to Reading Abbey, which he had founded for the maintenance of two hundred Benedictine monks, and the refreshment of travellers, on the site of a more ancient religious establishment. In consequence of this grant, the Priory at Leominster became subordinate to the Abbots of Reading; and the town itself was governed by officers, who held their places under their charter, and were chosen or approved by them, or by the Prior of Leominster. The principal officers were an upper and under bailiff, who appear to have been assisted by a common council, formed of the principal burgesses. Henry II. granted the town its first annual fair in 1170; two additional fairs were granted by Edward I., each of six days' continuance.

After the dissolution of the monasteries, Leominster, with its various members, was held by the Crown till the time of James I., when it was granted by that sovereign to his favourite, the Duke of Buckingham, with the whole of its appendages, on condition of paying into the exchequer the yearly rent of £305 11s. 5d. Part of this sum was probably intended to be paid over to the queen, Anne of Denmark, in whom Leominster, with four of its dependent manors, had been vested, as parcel of her jointure. During the interregnum, the estates which had belonged to the queen were in the possession of Henry Martin, Esq., but, after the Restoration, the whole appears to have been restored to the then Duke of Buckingham, the spendthrift and profligate Villiers, of whom Pope has drawn such a masterly character in his Moral Essays.

This nobleman sold a very considerable part of the estates to different purchasers about the year 1662; and ten or twelve years afterwards the remainder, including the manor and borough of Leominster, was taken possession of by Major Wildman, who bad been an active supporter of the Parliament during the Civil Wars, and to whom the duke was indebted the sum of £1,400. The major obtained a regular conveyance of these estates in 1675; and, after the Revolution in 1688, sold several of them, and leased so many others for twenty-one years, that the proceeds of the residue scarcely amounted to £30 more than the fee-farm rent payable to the Crown. He therefore, in 1692, sold all the remainder, including Leominster, to Lord Coningsby, who was then Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, for £3,060. It afterwards passed to the Earl of Essex, a descendant from his lordship by the female line. The manor of Leominster is now vested in John Hungerford Arkwright, Esq., J.P., D.L., of Hampton Court.

GOVERNMENT, ETC.- The borough of Leominster returned two representatives to Parliament from the year 1297, temp. Edward I., but this privilege was superseded by the "Representation of the People Act, 1867", which reduced the members to one. The present representative is Thomas Blake, Esq., of Lebanon, Ross, who was elected February 15th, 1876. The first royal charter of incorporation, granted by Queen Mary, constituting a bailiff and twenty-four capital burgesses the governing body of the borough, has received from various successive sovereigns renewals and confirmations, with the grant of additional privileges. By the Municipal Reform Act, passed in 1835, the government of the borough was vested in a corporation, consisting of a mayor (in lieu of the former bailiff), four aldermen, and twelve councillors, with a town clerk, treasurer, and the usual auxiliary officers. The town council elects the aldermen from its own members, and when once elected they retain their office for life. Four of the town councillors retire every year by rotation.

The borough is nominally divided into six wards, viz., Cross Pinsley, Etnam street, Middle Marsh, Nether Marsh, Out-Parish, and South street and High street; the whole number of ratepayers, without distinction of wards, vote at the annual election of town councillors. The newly-constituted corporation resigned of their own accord some of their ancient privileges, the court of sessions, the right of a borough gaol, the appointment of a recorder, the claim of the bailiff to act as coroner, the privilege hitherto allowed to the burgesses of being exempt from attendance on juries, and the exclusive and sole jurisdiction of the chief magistrate within the borough, as conferred by their various charters. The mayor is by right of his office a justice for two years. The number of magistrates is not limited, but as many as are appointed by the Crown are entitled to act.

The mayor and justices meet in the Town hall every Thursday at eleven o'clock for the transaction of magisterial business. The borough police force consists of a superintendent, one sergeant, and six constables. The county justices for Leominster petty sessional division meet at the County Police station, Burgess street, every alternate Friday at twelve o'clock. This town is included in circuit 27 of the county courts; the sittings are held at the Town hall twice every month. The Leominster county court has jurisdiction in bankruptcy, and attached to it are the county court districts of Bishop's Castle, Kington, Knighton, Ludlow, and Presteigne. (For list of officers and places comprised in Leominster district see page 443.)

The "Public Health Act", 1872, is now in operation in the borough of Leominster, and the council of the borough is the "Urban Sanitary Authority". The council, acting as the local board, has expended upwards of £13,000 in perfecting a system of water supply and drainage, the town being drained with pipes from 6 inches to 16 inches in diameter to one main brick sewer forming the outlet. The water is not pumped or abstracted from any river or stream, but is obtained from a well which has been sunk within the borough 7 feet 6 inches in diameter and 60 feet deep, and a bore hole about 110 feet farther.

The town is situated on the old red sandstone formation, and slightly above the valley of the river Lugg. The strata passed through were the surface-soil, consisting of about 6 feet of compact and nearly impervious red clay; a bed of river-gravel a few inches thick, forming the water-bed of the valley, on a level with, and no doubt communicating with, the river itself 200 yards distant; and below this, red and blue marl, with occasional lumps of sandstone rock for the remainder of the distance. No considerable supply of water was found below the gravel stratum, but that which found its way into the well through the fissures in the lower marl was of a remarkably soft character. A collecting drain was therefore made in the gravel for 150 yards in a direction away from the river. The supply of water was found to be ample in the very dry season 1869-70, and is much in excess of any probable requirement of the town. The quality is excellent, and is always clear and bright, requiring no filtration.

The water is pumped direct from the well into the supply reservoir, which is about 140 feet above the well and three-fourths of a mile distant in a direct line, and it passes from thence into the mains for distribution. The pumping station is at the well; there are two high-pressure engines of a nominal power of 12 horses each. The annual cost of pumping, including labour, fuel, and materials, is about £230. The area of the district is about one mile in length by three-fourths in breadth. About 800 houses are now supplied for domestic purposes - very little for trade purposes. The quantity of water pumped is about 100,000 gallons per day for all purposes. The water is supplied direct from the mains without cisterns. The supply is constant and adequate. The charge is 1s. in the £ on the net rateable value; no extra charge for water-closets. The water was analysed by Dr. Letheby of London in the month of January 1874, and the following is a copy of his analysis:-

 Grains per Gallon.
Carbonate of lime16.60
Carbonate of magnesia0.45
Sulphate of lime3.53
Sulphate of magnesia1.51
Chloride of sodium2.64
Organic matter0.12
Silica0.55
Earthy nitrates0.35
 
 Total solid per gallon grains25.75
 
Degrees of hardness before boiling20.0
Degrees of hardness after boiling5.1

These results are exceedingly satisfactory, and prove that the water is in every respect well suited for a town supply. For drinking purposes it is everything that can be desired.

MARKETS, FAIRS, TRADE, RAILWAYS, ETC.- On June 28th, 1853, the royal assent was given to an Act "For the establishment or improvement and regulation of markets and fairs in the borough of Leominster", &c., whereby many important privileges were conferred. The first stone of the new market-house was laid by the mayor (the late H. James, Esq.) on September 7th, 1854. The premises afford ample accommodation for the stowage and sale of commodities of every description. The market-day is Friday; the great market for the sale of stock is held on the first Friday in every month. The cattle market is in Rainbow street. Fairs are held on February 13th, Tuesday after Mid-Lent Sunday, May 2nd, second Friday in June, July 10th, August 4th, September 4th, Monday before the third Wednesday in October, November 8th, and a great market on the first Friday after December 11th, called "the great market before Christmas".

The borough of Leominster was never, in the whole course of its history, in a more flourishing condition than at the present time. The number of purchasers in its general markets have greatly augmented; and this larger attendance has raised the value of butter, eggs, cheese, vegetables, meat, and all kinds of poultry, so that the usual result has followed from the introduction of the railway - the equalization of the cost of all ordinary articles of daily consumption with the charges generally prevalent throughout the whole country. The sale of grain and hay has been especially influenced by the more ample facilities of communication. By means of the Shrewsbury and Hereford joint railway (which was opened for through traffic on December 6th, 1853), this town is in direct communication with the metropolis and the midland and northern counties of England; and an extensive trading business with Radnorshire and adjacent parts is carried on by means of the Leominster and Kington railway (of which this town is the junction), and the newly-opened lines to Presteigne and New Radnor.

The line to Kington was opened in August, 1858, and is leased to the Great Western Railway Company. A new line of railway is proposed by the Leominster and Bromyard Railway Company, which will give increased facilities for intercommunication, and connect Leominster with the city of Worcester, by means of the newly-opened Worcester and Bromyard railway. A commodious railway station, with extensive yards and premises for the stowage of goods and the exportation of merchandise and produce from the neighbourhood, is erected immediately adjoining the town.

There are three rivers running through the town (the Lugg, Pinsley, and Kenwater), besides the river Arrow, and other streams in the immediate vicinity. There are no manufactures of any consequence, which is to be regretted, owing to the facility of water-power; but the town being situated in the midst of a most luxuriant and fertile district, abounding with orchards, hop-grounds, and fruitful valleys producing large quantities of corn, timber, wool, bark, cider, and other inland produce, and breeding and feeding large quantities of cattle, sheep, &c., there is a considerable amount of traffic carried on in these products, and large quantities thereof are constantly being sent off by rail to the consuming districts.

There are, however, a few trades carried on, such as the manufacture of agricultural implements and machines (by Messrs. Alexanders and Loveridge of the Lion iron works, Mr. R.R. Miles, and Mr. T. Preece), brewing (Mr. C. Blundell, Britannia brewery), the tanning and dressing of leather, woolstapling, malting, brickmaking, several corn mills, &c. The building trade is also fairly represented. There are two banking establishments, viz., a branch of the National Provincial Bank of England, in Broad street, and a branch of the Worcester City and County Banking Company, Limited. The latter is a substantial building in Corn square, erected in 1866 from the designs of the late Henry Day, Esq., architect, of Worcester. The present building of the Savings Bank was erected in 1857 in Burgess street, at a cost, including site, of about £750. It is a detached building of brick, with Bath stone dressing, and an iron railing in front.

The general aspect of the town indicates prosperity and improvement. It is clean and neat in appearance, well paved and lighted with gas. Some of the streets are spacious; the shops are large and modern, and many of the houses display architectural features of no mean order; there are also some fine specimens of timber-framed houses, with ornamental brackets, heads, gable boards, &c. The principal hotel is the Royal Oak, a first-class family, commercial, and posting establishment.

PUBLIC BUILDINGS, INSTITUTIONS, ETC.- The Town Hall is a commodious structure of brick, erected in 1855, in a mixed style of Italian architecture, having door and window dressings, pilasters, cornices, &c., of Bath and Grinsel stone, with a frontage of nearly 50 feet, and about 160 feet in length. In the front are the main entrance gates and two side arched entrances, the latter leading to the council and magistrates' apartments, &c., the former to the market. On entering through the gates, there are four shops on each side, and at the end of the corridor is the market, a building 125 feet long, upwards of 40 feet wide, and 23 feet high, conveniently fitted up with stalls, standings, and similar arrangements, and packing-rooms, back and side entrances, and other places of convenience adjoining; the whole being covered with a corrugated galvanized iron roof, supported on two rows of light iron columns, with side lights along the whole length of the building, and having ten circular ventilators in the roof. There is a spacious room on the first floor; which is used for the county court, for the election of members of Parliament, for public meetings, and for other purposes of general interest.

In the main body of the building, over the entrance, is the council chamber, a handsome room, 45 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 20 feet high, in which is a half-length portrait of Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, Bart., K.B., M.P. for Leominster in 1754. Further on are rooms for the transaction of magisterial and other business, retiring rooms, &c. Over the council chamber rises a lofty cupola and clock turret, in which is fixed a handsome clock, having four dials, visible from many parts of the town, the whole being surmounted by a vane, &c., at a height of about 70 feet from the pavement. The Royal arms, carved in wood, and picked out in heraldic colours, which were set up on the old Town hall at the period of the Restoration, are placed in the front of the turret. Underneath the building are dry and spacious cellars, capable of stowing away large quantities of produce and merchandise. The building was erected under the superintendence of James Cranston, Esq., of Birmingham, at a cost of nearly £3,000; Mr. Joseph Poulton, of Leominster, having contracted for the erection of the building (exclusive of the ironwork), and Mr. J.E. Hodgkin, of Suffolk works, Birmingham, having taken the ironwork at a cost of nearly £900.

The Corn Exchange, situate on the west side of Corn square, is a substantial building in a mixed style of architecture, with brick front and Bath stone copings, and some well-carved emblematical devices of wheat-ears and sheaves. The hall, containing an area of 2,800 square feet, has a roof of glass, and is well provided with desks for the use of the merchants who frequent this market; when arranged for public meetings, it will accommodate 500 persons. Above is a smaller room, 26 by 19 feet, used as offices by Messrs. Edwards & Weaver, auctioneers, &c. The building was opened June 9th, 1859. The whole cost, with site and compensation to tenants, amounted to about £4,000. It is the property of the Corn Exchange Company, Limited. It is available for lectures, balls, entertainments, &c., and is let at a reasonable charge. The County Police Station and Magistrates' Room, situate in Burgess street, was erected upon the site of the old theatre. The Borough Gaol, situate in New street, is a neat brick building, erected in 1750. The Fire Engine House is also in New street, and three good engines are always in readiness. The Engine house contains a curious relic of bygone days, now disused, formerly kept in the Norman nave of the church, viz., a ducking-stool, said to be almost the only perfect one left in this country: the latest recorded example of its use in England occurred in Leominster in 1809.

The Gas Works, situate in Upper Marsh, were erected in 1836 by Messrs. Stears & Co., of Stroud, at a cost of £2,987, and have since been considerably enlarged. They are the property of the Leominster Gas Light and Coke Company, Limited. The capital of the company is £5,000, being 500 shares at £10 each. The price of gas has been reduced to 5s. per 1,000 feet; the original charge was 12s. 6d. per 1,000 feet. The shares are in the hands of about forty proprietors, and are not often in the market. T.B. Stallard, Esq., is chairman of the company.

The Leominster Working Men's Club in Burgess street was established in 1871. It is well supplied with the daily and weekly papers and periodicals, has a library, and reading and refreshment rooms. An adult school is held twice a week during the winter months, and some of the friendly societies hold their meetings here. The members pay 1s. 6d. per quarter. There is also a reading-room in Burgess street in connection with the Leominster Working Men's Conservative Association, established in 1876.

The Orphan Homes, in Ryelands road, were established in 1873 for the reception of destitute boys and girls, who have lost both parents by death. The institution is entirely supported by annual subscriptions and donations. Orphans under ten years of age are received from any place (in order of application), upon approval of the managers, without any sectarian distinction, and are cared for and educated until they are capable of taking situations. The religious and moral culture of the children receives careful consideration. There are at present two cottage homes, each containing about 20 children and superintended by a matron. The orphans' printing press, in Broad street, is in connection with the "homes", and the whole of the tracts published by the Leominster Tract Association are printed here. The boys work three hours a day in the printing office, one set in the morning and another in the afternoon. This allows them plenty of time for school and for play. The depository of the tract society is under the charge of the resident manager of the orphans' printing press.

The ancient Priory has, since its dissolution, undergone many alterations, and was finally incorporated with the Union Workhouse, of which it now forms a part. It was sold to the guardians of the poor, September 7th, 1837, for £745. It is capable of accommodating 150 paupers. The average number of inmates at present is about 70.

The chapel of the Forbury, erected by Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury, at the latter end of the 13th century, is a plain building in the Pointed style, with a good eastern window and an open timber roof. Its name is derived from " berye" or "bury", signifying a place enclosed with walls, and from the word "fore" or "afore", denoting its relative situation, in front, or before, the abbey. The chapel was used for divine service during the rebuilding of the church (A.D. 1700), and has been subsequently used for many other purposes. It was purchased by Thomas Sale, Esq., town clerk, who restored it in 1861, and converted it into offices.

NOTABILIA.- The old Town hall or Market Cross, erected in 1634, is deservedly preserved as a most interesting reminiscence of the ancient town of Leominster. The original designer of this fabric was John Abel, the greatest architect of his day, who built the Town hall at Hereford, and several other market-houses in this and adjoining counties. It was a wooden structure, supported by twelve oak pillars of the Ionic order, with massive beams, quaint carvings, curious semi-proverbial and semi-religious mottoes in Latin and English, having spacious rooms over for the transaction of public business.

This beautiful example of Elizabethan timber-work is without doubt one of the most interesting buildings of the kind in the kingdom. It originally stood in the centre of the town, at the junction of the four main thoroughfares of High street, Broad street, Church, street, and Burgess street. It was found to incommode the traffic, and was sold by public auction on May 4th, 1853, to Mr. Francis Davis, for the sum of £95. This gentleman transferred it, for the same sum, to the late John Arkwright, Esq., who re-erected it in the Grange, and converted it into a handsome dwelling-house, retaining all the characteristics of its ancient style of architecture.

The Grange is a pleasant and attractive promenade, planted with flower-beds and sbrubberies, and is quite an ornament to the town. Its walks afford excellent views of the surrounding scenery. On the east side is the Grange house, occupied by Henry Moore, Esq.; on the south side is the Grange house academy, conducted by Mr. James Cox, A.C.P.; on the north side is a fountain with ornamental surroundings; and in the north-east corner is the Sebastopol gun, captured in 1854, and placed there in 1860.

There are flourishing agricultural and horticultural associations, the former holding an annual exhibition in October, and the latter having three shows during the season; a good rifle corps (6th Herefordshire), cricket club, amateur choral society, angling association, foresters' and oddfellows' clubs, and other institutions of a similar character; and harriers, otter hounds, &c., are kept in the neighbourhood. There were formerly annual races held here, which were well supported until the construction of the Shrewsbury and Hereford railway, through the centre of the racecourse, since which time they have been discontinued. Steeplechases were held a few years afterwards, and several influential gentlemen of the district have expressed a desire that then should be re-established:

PLACES of WORSHIP.- The venerable Priory church of Leominster (St. Peter and St. Paul), formerly two separate churches - the church of the monks, and the church of the parish - is a spacious edifice, abounding with fine specimens of Norman and Early English architecture. The length of the church is 125 feet, the breadth 121 feet, and the height 52 feet. In the year 1863 it was proposed to effect a thorough restoration of the whole edifice, both internally and externally; and in order to carry this out, a committee was appointed, who consulted Mr. (now Sir) George Gilbert Scott, R.A., the noted ecclesiastical architect, who shortly afterwards made a careful survey and report of the whole structure. The committee determined to proceed with the work in sections, and commenced with the Norman nave and aisle in the month of May, 1864, and this first section was completed and opened for divine worship June 30th, 1866: total cost of restoration, £3,012.

The Norman nave, a part of the ancient church of the monks, is considered one of the finest specimens of Early Norman architecture in the kingdom, and contains several curious pillars of great girth, supporting round arches. The doorway at the north-west end of the church, which is ornamented with pillars and receding arched mouldings, is extremely beautiful. After the Dissolution, the Norman nave and aisle of the then monastic structure went into disuse as regards worship, and subsequently became a place of interment only; by the gradual accumulation of soil thrown out from the vaults, the floor was raised to some height up the shafts of the Norman columns, entirely burying the bases and the responds thereof. This floor had to be lowered to the depth in some places of a yard, the arches of the vaults lowered, and the whole covered with a layer of concrete of a foot in thickness by an order of her Majesty in Council. This floor is covered with Godwin's encaustic tiles.

The old lean-to roof has been entirely taken off, and a roof, mostly new, of a moderate pitch substituted, surmounted at the eastern end by a parapet and cross, covered entirely with new lead, and finished internally as a level framed and panelled timber ceiling. This is decorated in colours. The side walls of the nave above the clerestory windows have been raised, so as to exhibit the heads of the windows. The arcade on the south side of the nave has been opened, the bases, shafts, and capitals of the massive columns carefully restored, and the ravages caused by the fire in 1699 made good, this part of the masonry being the heaviest in the section. The north arcade has been similarly restored. The roof of the north aisle has been strengthened and repaired, covered with asphalted felt, and retiled, and the ancient timbers, which vary in each bay, have been carefully preserved.

The two Early English triplet windows in the north aisle (constructed partly of timber and partly of stone) have been repaired, as also the stone mullions and heads of the quintuplet adjoining. The whole interior has been denuded of its many coats of whitewash, scraped, cleaned, and pointed in white mortar, and all the dressings of the windows, arches, triforium, &c., which were mutilated or decayed, have been restored and pointed in cement. A new vestry has been erected at the N.E. angle of the nave and aisle, which is screened from, and a continuation of, the latter to the eastern wall of the nave, from which it is entered by an old Norman doorway hitherto blocked up. The Norman nave is now used for divine service, and is fitted up with clergy and choir stalls and pews for the members of the corporation, the body of the edifice being fitted with chairs for the accommodation of the congregation.

A committee has been recently formed with the view of procuring funds for the restoration of the south part of this fine old church, which is in so serious a state of dilapidation, that if not taken in hand at once, will in a very short time be past restoration. The estimated cost, according to Sir Gilbert Scott's report, is upwards of £15,000, towards which subscriptions amounting to about £4,000 are promised. The southern side has been described by an eminent architect to be "one of the noblest examples of this variety of Gothic architecture in existence". It includes the porch and a row of five windows, of almost unequalled splendour.

The sedilia in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin and other objects of interest to the antiquary, yet remain. On the west is a large and stately front, with a noble central window in the Perpendicular style, and a smaller one of a later period, richly decorated with a profusion of ball flowers. At the north-west corner is a massive tower, built in the Perpendicular style within the Norman portion of the fabric, and exhibiting externally, at the upper half, decorated windows, with embattled parapet and pinnacles; whilst the lower half comprises the round-headed Norman window, and the western doorway below it.

In the tower is a good peal of eight bells, to which is attached a fine set of chimes, which play every four hours. In the baptistery is a beautifully carved font, presented in 1842 by the Rev. W. E; Evans, then rural dean of Leominster. It is a copy of the font of St. Mary Magdalene, Oxford; around its margin is a Latin inscription and a Greek anagram. The church plate consists, of an ancient paten and chalice (silver-gilt and very perfect), a silver cup and cover, a silver flagon, and two silver patens.

The organ was purchased in 1737. In the churchyard are some ancient monuments of an interesting character; among others, one to the memory of the grandfather and grandmother of the celebrated Mrs. Siddons and Mr. Kemble.

The parish registers commence with the year 1549; they are missing from 1604 to 1669. The living is in the diocese and archdeaconry of Hereford and rural deanery of Leominster; it is a discharged vicarage, endowed by private benefaction, and augmented by Queen Anne's bounty; value £300, with residence and 5 acres of glebe; patron, the Lord Chancellor; vicar, Rev. Augustin Gaspard Edouart, M.A., of St. John's College, Cambridge, who was instituted in 1862, and is also a surrogate for the diocese.

The two parishes of Stoke Prior cum Docklow and Ivington have been formed out of the old parish of Leominster, the presentations to which are still continued to the vicar. The first of these was formed into a separate parish about the middle of the last century, and the township of Ivington was made a separate parish by Order in Council, dated January 31st, 1844. The members of the Leominster Free church hold their services in a neat brick building, erected in 1855, in Etnam street, and until recently used as a mission-room. The Rev. George Slater is the minister.

The Congregational (or Independent) chapel, in Burgess street, was erected on the site of an old chapel dating back for 200 years. The foundation-stone was laid on September 6th, 1866, and the chapel was opened for service on June 4th, in the following year. It is a brick building, with freestone dressings, in the Decorated style of Gothic architecture of the early part of the 14th century, the front elevation having central entrance door, with a four-lighted traceried window over, and smaller side windows.

A tower with spire rises on the north-west angle to a height of nearly 80 feet, and forms a prominent object from all parts of the town. The building is 50 feet long by 28 feet broad, and affords accommodation on the ground-floor for about 250 persons. The principal feature of the interior is the hammer-beam roof, with a clerestory which supplies the greater portion of the light to the building, as the windows are only obtainable on one side of the erection. The total cost of the building was about £1,600. Mr. Foster, of Bristol, was the architect, and Mr. James Page, of Leominster; the builder.

The Wesleyan chapel, also in Burgess street, was erected in 1861 near the site of a former structure. It has accommodation for 300 persons, being the largest chapel in the town. The total cost of building (including site) was about £1,000. The Moravian chapel, in South street, was erected in 1759. The schools, which adjoin the chapel, were almost entirely rebuilt in 1874 at a cost of about £250. They are built of red brick with Bath stone facings.

The Friends' meeting house, also in South street, is a plain building of red brick. The Baptist chapel, in Etnam Street, was erected in 1771, and restored in 1857. It is a brick building with one gallery, and will seat nearly 300 persons. There is a burial-ground attached.

The Primitive Methodist chapel, in Green lane, was erected in 1873 near the site of a former building. It is built of red brick with Bath Stone dressings; cost about £500. The Plymouth Brethrens' meeting room is at the bottom of Broad street. St. Ethelbert's Roman Catholic chapel, in Burgess street, was opened in 1868.

SCHOOLS AND CHARITIES.- The national schools were opened August 10th, 1858. They were erected from the designs of Thomas Nicholson, Esq., F.I.B.A., of Hereford, at a cost of £2,000. They form a pretty pile of stone buildings near the church, and consist of a master's house, and three capacious and separate apartments for boys, girls, and infants. The average daily attendance during the past year (1875) was 315.

The ancient grammar school, founded prior to the Reformation, formed the subject of litigation between the charity commissioners and the mayor and corporation of Leominster about twenty years ago, but the suit was withdrawn. The corporation increased their payment to £25 annually, and, with the sanction of the Court of Chancery, attached the stipend to the national school for ever.

The British school for boys, girls, and infants is a neat brick building, situate in the Bargates. It was erected in 1861 at a cost of about £500. The number of children on the books is over 200; average attendance, about 180. Nearly opposite this school are the alms-houses founded by Mrs. Hester Clark, A.D. 1736, for four poor widows. The houses were rebuilt in 1874 from the designs of Mr. Haddon, of Hereford, at a cost of about £500; they are of white brick with Bath stone facings. In the centre of the building there is a ludicrous-looking figure of a man in a cocked hat, holding an axe in his hand, with these lines beneath:-

"He that gives away all before he is dead, Let 'em take this Hatchet and knock him on ye head".

The principal benefaction belonging to the parish is Cornwall's charity, amounting to £450 invested in consols, the interest being distributed to poor women in sums of 4s. 6d. and 2s. each by the trustees on Christmas and New Year's Eve. The other charities are chiefly distributed in bread. There are several Small endowments in connection with the Baptist denomination.

TOWNSHIPS, ETC.- The ecclesiastical parish of IVINGTON comprises the chief part of the township of Ivington, Hyde Ash, Wintercott, and Wharton, and consists of the western portion of the parish of Leominster, being bounded on the north by Kingsland, on the north-west by Monkland, on the west by Stretford and Birley, on the south by Hope-under-Dinmore and Croft, on the south-east by the river Lugg, and on the east by the remaining part of the parish of Leominster, from which it is divided by proceeding up the river Arrow from its junction with the Lugg, in a north-westerly direction as far as the western extremity of Dry meadow, in a line with the boundary separating the Ryelands from the Dishley property, and proceeding up such boundary on the western brink of the Ryelands pool in a north-easterly direction, and crossing the road from Leominster to Ivington at Dishley, proceeds in a northernly direction to Baron's cross turnpike bar, and from thence in a straight line to the Wegnalls farm, on the river Pinsley, which separates it from Kingsland.

An elegant little church, dedicated to St. John, was erected in 1842, mainly through the exertions and contributions of the late Robert Lane, Esq., of the Ryelands, of the late Mrs. Lane, and of their friends. It underwent some repairs in 1868 at a Cost of £30. The east window is filled with stained glass to the memory of Mrs. Ann Lane, who died November 2nd, 1851. There is also a memorial window in the south aisle to Mrs. Juliana Bloomfield, daughter of the above, who died November 11th, 1860. The living is a vicarage endowed by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners with £100 yearly (without residence or glebe); patron, the Vicar of Leominster; vicar, Rev. John Price Jones, B.D., of St. David's College, Lampeter, who was instituted in 1854. The national school near the church was erected in 1848-49. Ivington is distant about 3 miles S.W. of Leominster.

Broadward, Brierley, and Wharton comprise a township in the out-parish of Leominster. Brierley is distant about 2 miles S. of Leominster, and comprises three respectable farm houses. On Brierley hills, about 3 miles S. of Leominster, is Ivington Camp, once the sacred scene of Bardic worship and instruction; the antiquarian tourist will conscientiously regard it among the first and most interesting objects of his researches which this district presents. It appears to be divided into two parts; the larger and exterior entrenchment is undoubtedly Roman; the modern and interior part is supposed to be the camp occupied by Owen Glendower, as many coins of the dates of 1339 and 1340 have of late years been turned up by the plough. It commands a very extensive and beautiful prospect, diversified with many interesting objects, and animated by the meanderings of the Lugg and the Arrow. Wharton is distant about 2 miles from Leominster on the Hereford road. The Fordbridge station on the Shrewsbury and Hereford railway is in this township, being divided from Ford parish by the river Lugg.

Newtown, Stagbatch, and Cholstrey form a township in Leominster parish. According to tradition, Cholstrey was formerly a Roman camp or colony. It is distant about 2 miles W. of Leominster, and consists of three or four farm-houses and a corn mill. Eaton, Hennor, and Stretford likewise form a township of Leominster. Eaton is distant about 1 mile S.E. of the town, and was formerly the seat of the Hackluyts, of whom Walter de Hackluyt was high sheriff of this county during the first four years of Edward II. The illustrious Adam de Eaton, who was raised to the dignity of a cardinal for his great learning, was a native of this township. He died at Rome, A.D. 1397.

SEATS IN THE VICINITY.- Among the seats of the nobility and gentry in the neighbourhood of Leominster may be noticed - Shobdon Court, the handsome mansion of the Right Hon. Lord Bateman (Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the county); Berrington Hall, the seat of the Right Hon. Lord Rodney (see Eye, page 181); Hampton Court, that of John Hungerford Arkwright, Esq., M.A., J.P., D.L. (see Hope-under-Dinmore, page 340); Croft Castle, Rev. William Trevelyan Kevill Davies, J.P. (see Croft, page 147); Pudleston Court, Harry Chadwick, Esq. (see Pudleston); Burton Court, John Clowes, Esq., J.P., D.L. (see Eardisland, page 166); Street Court, Benjamin Lawrence Sanders, Esq., LL.B., J.P., D.L. (see Kingsland, page 355); Broxwood Court, Major Richard Snead Cox, J.P., D.L. (see Pembridge); The Ryelands (in the parish of Leominster, about 1 mile S.W. of the town), Theophilus William Lane, Esq., M.A., J.P., D.L.; Hennor House (also in the parish of Leominster and on the borders of Kimbolton), Captain Charles Benjamin Stevenson, J.P.; Buckland, Captain Edward Nicholas Heygate, R.E., J.P., D.L. (see Docklow, page 158); Oaklands, Robert Henry John Heygate, Esq. (see Docklow); The Byletts, John Bowies Evans, Esq., J.P., D.L. (see Pembridge); Hatfield Hall, Howarth Ashton, Esq. (see Hatfield, page 204); Eyton Hall, Richard Weaver Evans, Esq., J.P. (see Eyton, page 183); Bircher Hall, Thomas Dunne, Esq., J.P., D.L. (see Yarpole); The Highwood, Hon. Humphrey de Bohun Devereux, J.P., D.L. (see Yarpole.)

POSTAL REGULATIONS.

Post and Telegraph Office, 18 Broad street.
Mr. John Woolley, Postmaster.

Despatch of Letters, &c.
LINES OF ROAD AND CHIEF
PLACES OF DESTINATION.
LETTERS, ETC., CAN BE
POSTED
LETTERS, ETC., CAN BE
REGISTERED
WITHOUT EX-
TRA CHARGE
UNTIL
WITH AN AD-
DITIONAL 1D.
STAMP UNTIL
FOR A FEE
OF 4D.
UNTIL
FOR A FEE
OF 8D.
UNTIL
London, Shrewsbury, &c.9.30 a.m.9.15 a.m.9.0 a.m.9.20 a.m.
Kington3.45 p.m.4.0 p.m.3.30 p.m. 
Gloucester and the South and West of England6.0 p.m.6.15 p.m.6.0 p.m. 
London, Shrewsbury, Stafford, Ludlow, North and South of England, Scotland, Ireland, and places abroad7.35 p.m.
(also on Sundays.)
7.50 p.m.7.5 p.m.7.25 p.m.
Hereford, Kington, Pembridge, Weobley, Titey, Harpton, Radnor, Walton, Presteine, Stanton-on-Arrow, Shobdon, Kingsland10.0 p.m.
(also on Sundays.)
 9.0 p.m. 

Delivery of Letters, &c.
LINES OF ROAD AND CHIEF PLACES FROM WHICH
MAILS ARE RECEIVED.
DELIVERY BY
LETTTER CARRIERS
BEGINS AT
DELIVERY TO
CALLERS
BEGINS AT
London, Shrewsbury, and all parts of the Kingdom7.0 a.m.7.0 a.m.
London, Gloucester, and Hereford4.45 p.m.4.45 p.m.
Hereford and Kington9.5 p.m.9.5 p.m.

For Postal Telegraph and Ordinary Business this office is open from 7 a.m. till 9 p.m. on week-days, and from 7 a.m. till 10 a.m. on Sundays.
Money Orders are granted and paid, and Post Office Savings Bank, Insurance, Annuity, and Licence Business transacted from 9 a.m. till 6 p.m.
The Wall Letter-box, South street, and the Pillar Letter-box, Bargates, are cleared at 5.45 p.m. daily.
Branch Post Office, The Broad; George Parker, Sub-Postmaster. Letters are delivered by Bircher Common messenger, at 6.50 a.m.; despatched to Leominster at 5.45 p.m.

Rural Letter Carriers.
 Depart atReturn at
To Bodenham via Ford, Newton, Hampton Court, &c.6.30 a.m.6.0 p.m.
  "  Bircher Common via Luston,Yarpole, &c.6.30 a.m.6.0 p.m.
  "  Birley via Ivington, Wintercott, &c.6.30 a.m.6.0 p.m.
  "  Dilwyn via Monkland, &c.6.30 a.m.6.0 p.m.
  "  Docklow via Stoke Prior, Humber, &c.6.30 a.m.6.0 p.m.
  "  Eye via Stockton, Kimbolton, Ashton, &c.6.30 a.m.6.0 p.m.
  "  Hatfield via Hennor, Pudleston, &c.6.30 a.m.6.0 p.m.
  "  Ivington6.30 a.m.11.30 a.m.
  "  Stretford Bridge via The Wegnalls, Corner Cop, Monkland, The Hide, &c.6.30 a.m.12.0 noon

Letters for Pembridge and Titley Railway Sub-Offices leave Leominster (by rail) at 5 a.m. A mounted messenger is despatched from Pembridge, R.S.O., at 6.20 a.m. to Weobley, R.S.O., and Norton Canon, returning to Pembridge at 6.45 p.m.; letters are thence despatched (by rail) to Leominster at 8.45 p.m. A messenger is also despatched from Pembridge to Broxwood at 9.15 a.m., returning at 5.30 p.m. A messenger is despatched from Weobley, R.S.O., at 9.15 a.m., to King's Pyon, Bush Bank, &c., returning to Weobley at 4 p.m.
The Mail-Cart to Presteigne via Kingsland, Shobdon, Stanton-on-Arrow, &c., leaves Leominster at 5.30 a.m., returning at 8.5 p.m. messenger is despatched from Kingsland, R.S.O., at 6.30 a.m., to Wigmore via Lucton, Aymestrey, Yatton, &c., returning to Kingsland at 7 p.m.
The Railway Sub-Offices of Kingsland, Shobdon, Pembridge, Weobley, and Presteigne are likewise money order and telegraph offices.

CIVIC FUNCTIONARIES. Member of Parliament.- Thomas Blake, Esq., Lebanon, Ross; Westminster Palace hotel, and Reform club, London, S.W.
Lord of the Manor.- John Hungerford Arkwright, Esq., Hampton court, Leominster.
CORPORATION. Mayor.- Samuel Sampson, Esq.; Deputy Mayor, William Phillips; Esq.; Ex-Mayor, William Gammidge, Esq.
Aldermen.- James Bedford, Esq., Thomas Bristow Stallard, Esq., William Edward Hyde, Esq., and John Jackson, Esq.
Councillors.- William Phillips, John Tertius Southall, William Gammidge, Edward Gunnell, Alfred Lewis, Samuel Goode, Benjamin Jenkins, William Stewart Boyce, Samuel Sampson, Robert Jones, Jeremiah Lockett, and Richard Christopher Boulton.
Borough Treasurer.- Edwin Lloyd, Esq.
Town Clerk.- Thomas Sale, Esq.
Urban Sanitary Authority.- (The Town Council constitutes the Board; meetings are held monthly.) George Thomas Robinson, Esq., Clerk; William Daggs, Esq., Treasurer; Dr. Pentland, Medical Officer of Health; Mr. Joseph Cox, Surveyor; Mr. Francis Seaborn, Inspector of Nuisances; Mr. James Wilkes, jun., Collector of Rates.
MAGISTRATES FOR THE BOROUGH.- (Meet at the Town hall every Thursday at 11 o'clock.) Samuel Sampson, Esq., Mayor; William Gammidge, Esq.; James Bedford, Esq.; Thomas Burlton, Esq.; Josiah Newman, Esq.; William Daggs, Esq.; Robert Hayling Woodhouse, Esq.; Thomas Graves, Esq.; and Henry Herbert, Esq. Clerk to the Magistrates, Henry Moore, Esq., offices, 5 and 6 Corn square.
MAGISTRATES ACTING FOR THE LEOMINSTER DIVISION.- (Meet at the County Police station, Burgess street, every alternate Friday at 12 o'clock.) John Hungerford Arkwright, Esq., Hampton Court, Chairman; Bonham Caldwall, Esq., Leominster; Theophilus William Lane, Esq., M.A., The Ryelands; Thomas Dunne, Esq., Bircher Hall; Rev. William Trevelyan Kevill Davies, Croft Castle; Captain Charles Benjamin Stevenson, Hennor House; Captain Edward Nicholas Heygate, R.E., Buckland House; Rev. Henry Browne, B.A., Eastham Rectory, Tenbury; Benjamin Lawrence Sanders, Esq., LL.B., Street Court, Kingsland; Thomas Burlton, Esq., Eaton Hill, Leominster; Rev. P. Scudamore-Stanhope, M.A., Humber Rectory; Richard Prescott Decie, Esq., Bockleton Court, Tenbury. Clerk to the Justices, Henry Moore, Esq., offices, 5 and 6 Corn square. Superintendent of Police for Leominster and Wigmore Divisions, Mr. Thomas Dykes, Police station, Burgess street. List of Parishes and Places in the Leominster Petty Sessional Division.- Ashton, Aston, Bodenham, Brimfield, Bircher, Brockmanton, Croft, Docklow, Eye, Eyton, Ford, Hamnish-Clifford, Hampton Wafer, Hatfield, Hereford (Little), Hope-under-Dinmore, Humber, Kimbolton, Kingsland, Lawton, Laysters, Longford, Luston, Luston, Middleton-on-the-Hill, Mileshope, Monkland, Newhampton, Newton, Orleton, Pudleston, Richards Castle (part of), Risbury, Stoke Prior, Stockton, Upton, West Town, Westwood, Woonton, and Yarpole.
BANKS. National Provincial Bank of England (branch of), draw on the head offices of the National Provincial Bank of England, Bishopsgate street, corner of Threadneedle street, London, E.C.; bank hours 10 till 3, on market and fair days 10 till 4, on Saturdays 10 till 1; Valentine Webb Holmes, Esq., Manager, 13 Broad street.
Worcester City and County Banking Company, Limited (branch of), draw on the London Joint Stock Bank, 5 Princes street, London, E.C.; bank hours 10 till 3, on market and fair days 10 till 4, on Saturdays 10 till 1; William Daggs, Esq., Manager, Corn square.
Savings Bank, Burgess street (established July 29, 1816); open on Tuesdays from 10 till 11 a.m., on Fridays and fair days from 10 till 11.30 a.m., and on Saturdays from 7 till 8 p.m.; Edward Prichard Southall, Esq., Treasurer; Valentine Webb Holmes, Esq., Auditor; Mr. George Weaver, Actuary.
PUBLIC BUILDINGS, INSTITUTIONS, OFFICES, ETC.
(With names of Officers attached.)
Borough Police Station, New street.- Mr. George Johnson, Superintendent, with one sergeant and six constables.
Cattle, Sheep, and Pig Market, entrances, Rainbow street and Bargates.
Clark's Almshouses, Bargates.
Corn Exchange, Corn square.- The Corn Exchange Company, Limited, Proprietors; Mr. George Weaver, Secretary; Wm. Smith, Hall-Keeper.
County Court Office, 9 Church street.- (The Court is held at the Town hall twice every month.) Josiah William Smith, Esq., B.C.L., Q.C., Athelstan Hall, Hereford, Judge; Martin Curtler, Esq., Worcester, Treasurer; George Thomas Robinson, Esq., Leominster, Registrar and High Bailiff; Mr. Heath Went; Sub-Bailiff. The following is a List of Places in the Jurisdiction of the Leominster County Court (the figures in parentheses denote the average number of miles from the Court-house):- Ashton (5), Aston (4), Aulden (4), Aymestrey (8), Barewood (8), Baron's Cross (2), Berrington (4), Bidney (7), Bircher (6), Birley (5), Blackpole (3), Bodenham (8), Bowley (8), Brierley (3), Broad The (2), Broadward (2), Brockmanton (5), Buckfield (1), Buckland (5), Backnell (5), Burton (6), Chadnor (7), Cholstrey (3), Cinders The (8), Cobnash (3), Cockcroft (1), Cockgate (5), Comberton (7), Covenhope (9), Croft (7), Dewell (8), Dilwyn (7), Docklow (5), Dorstone (4), Downwood (9), Dunhampton (7), Eardisland (6), Easthampton (8), Eaton (2), Ebnall (2), Eye (4), Eyton (3), Fencote (6), Ford (3), Ginhall (1), Gorsty Hill (4), Grantsfield (4), Hamnish Clifford (4), Hampton Wafer (7), Hardwick (6), Hatfield (7), Haven (7), Hennor (3), Hope-under-Dinmore (5), Humber (5), Hundred The (5), Hurst The (8), Hyde Ash (4), Ivington (3), Kimbolton (4), Kingsland (5), Knapton (6), Lawton (4), Laysters (6), Ledicot (8), Leinthall Earles (10), Leominster Borough (1), Leominster Out Parish (3), Lockley Heath (7), Longford (5), Lucton (5), Luntley (7), Luston (3), Lye (10), Maund Bryan (10), Middleton-on-the-Hill (6), Monkland (3), Moor The (10), Moreton (5), Mortimer's Cross (7), Newhampton (7), Newton (7), Newton Township (4), Newtown (3), Orleton (6), Perryditch (6), Pudleston (6), Riddle The (4), Risbury (5), Rowley Field (3), Shirlheath (6), Shobdon (8), Stagbatch (3), Stockmore (7), Stockton (3), Stoke Prior (4), Street (6), Stretford in Leominster Out Parish (3), Stretford (5), Swanson (7), Tibball (8), Uphampton in Docklow (6), Uphampton in Shobdon (9), Upper Hill (6), Weobley (9), West Town (5), Wharton (3), Whitechurch Maund (11), Whyle The (6), Wickton (4), Winsley (6), Wintercott (4), Woodhampton (11), Woonton (6), Yarpole (5), Yatton (9).
County Police Station and Magistrates' Room, Burgess street.- Mr. Thomas Dykes, Superintendent for Leominster and Wigmore Divisions.
Depot of the British and Foreign Bible Society, at the "Orphans' Printing Press", 10 and 12 Broad street.
Depot of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and of the National Society, at Mrs. Harriet Went's, Public library, 10 South street.
Dispensary.- Edward Prichard Southall, Esq., Secretary; William Edward Hyde, Esq., Samuel Barnett, Esq., and William Stewart Boyce, Esq., Medical Officers.
Fire Engine House, New street (three engines kept).
Gas Works, Broad street.- The Leominster Gas and Coke Company, Limited, Proprietors; Thomas Bristow Stallard, Esq., Chairman; John Tertius Southall, Esq., Managing Director; Mr. George Weaver, Secretary; Mr. James Davies Morris, Collector; Henry Parsons, Manager.
Industrial Home, 7 Corn square.- (Twenty-five girls of good character are trained for domestic service. Terms of admission, £10 per annum.) Miss Davies, Lady Superintendent.
Inland Revenue Office, at Royal Oak Hotel, South street.- Mr. F. a'Court, Supervisor; Mr. Abraham Hargreaves, Revenue Officer.
Leominster Working Men's Club, Burgess street (established 1871).- John Tertius Southall, Esq., Treasurer; Mr. William J. Geaussent, Honorary Secretary; Mr. Henry Williams, Manager.
Orphan Homes, Ryelands road.- Priscilla Lennox, Matron of Boys' Home; Annie Nelson, Matron of Girls' Home; Orphans' Printing Press (in connection with the Homes), 10 and 12 Broad street; Henry Stanley Newman, Hon. Secretary; George Blacklock, Manager.
Poultry and Provision Market, High street.
Stamp Office, 13 High st.- Mr. Charles James Saxby, Sub-Distributor.
Town Hall, High street.- William Smith, Hall-Keeper.
Waterloo Room (used by the Plymouth Brethren), Broad street.
LEOMINSTER UNION.- (The guardians meet at the Board-room, Union workhouse, The Priory, every alternate Friday at 10 a.m.) Josiah Newman, Esq., J.P., Chairman; Mr. Benjamin Hawkins (Orleton), and Mr. John Tertius Southall (Leominster), Vice-Chairmen; Edwin Gregg, Esq., Clerk to the Guardians and to the Rural Sanitary Authority; Alfred William Roberts, Esq., Auditor; William Daggs, Esq., Treasurer; Rev. Henry Cooper, B.A. (Stoke Prior), Chaplain; Henry Thomas de Montarville Pentland, Esq., L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S. (Leominster), House Surgeon, Public Vaccinator, and Medical Officer to No. 1 District; Robert Williams, Esq., M.B. (The Croase, Kingsland), Medical Officer to No. 2 District; Mr. Charles Weaver, Master; Mrs. Harriet Weaver, Matron; Mr. William Mason, 6 Bridge street, Relieving Officer for No. 1 District; Mr. Richard Oseman Smith, Kingsland, Relieving Officer for No. 2 District. The Union comprises the following Places:-Aymestrey, Bodenham, Croft, Docklow, Eye, Moreton and Ashton, Eyton, Ford or Fordbridge, Hampton Wafer, Hatfield, Hope-under-Dinmore, Humber, Kimbolton, Kingsland, Laysters, Leominster Borough, Leominster Out-Parish, Luston, Luston, Middleton-on-the-Hill, Monkland, Newhampton, Newton, Orleton, Pudleston, Shobdon, Stoke Prior, and Yarpole.
REGISTRATION OF BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES.- Superintendent Registrar, Edwin Gregg, Esq., offices, 9 Broad street, and at the Union; Registrar of Marriages, Mr. Thomas Bannister, 2 Church street; Registrar of Births, Deaths, and Marriages for Leominster District, Mr. John Woolley, Post office, 18 Broad street (Deputy, Mr. Thomas Bannister); Registrar of Births and Deaths for the Out-Parish of Leominster and for Bodenham District, Mr. William Mason, 6 Bridge street; Registrar for Kingsland District, Mr. William Mason, Yarpole; Registrar of Marriages for the Society of Friends, Mr. John Tertius Southall, Drapers' lane.
PLACES OF WORSHIP. Parish Church (St. Peter and St. Paul).- Rev. Augustin Gaspard Edouart, M.A., Vicar; Rev. John Wannop Nixon, Curate; Mr. Thomas Bannister and Thomas Bristow Stallard, Esq., Churchwardens; Mr. S. Dobbs, Organist; Thomas John Dickins, Parish Clerk.
St. John's Church, Ivington.- Rev. John Price Jones, B.D., Vicar.
Trinity Free Church of England, Etnam street.- Rev. George Slater, Incumbent.
Baptist Chapel, Etnam street.- Rev. Thomas Nash, Minister.
Congregational Chapel, Burgess street.- Rev. John Taylor, Minister.
Moravian Chapel, South street.- Rev. Wm. Austin S. Smith, Minister.
Plymouth Brethren Meeting Room, at Waterloo Rooms, Broad street.
Primitive Methodist Chapel, Green lane.- Rev. J. Pickwell, Minister.
Religious Society of Friends' Meeting House, South street.
St. Ethelbert's Roman Catholic Chapel, Burgess street.
Wesleyan Chapel, Burgess street.- Rev. John W. Moody, Minister.
SCHOOLS. British (boys, girls, and infants), Bargates.- Mr. J.G. Golley, Master; Mrs. M. Golley, Girls' Mistress; Miss Margaret Dolin, Infants' Mistress.
National (boys, girls, and infants), Almsbury close.- Mr. Edward W. Jones, Master; Miss Mercy Maria Mason, Girls' Mistress; Miss M.A. Urry, Infants' Mistress.
St. John's National (boys and girls), Ivington.- Mr. James R. Bland, Master.
Leominster Free School.- Mr. Henry Beck, Superintendent.
Church Sunday School at National school.
Moravian Sunday School, South street.
Wesleyan Sunday School, Burgess street.
SOCIETIES, ASSOCIATIONS, ETC. Ancient Order of Foresters.- (Court Royal Hackluyt, held at Working Men's Club, Burgess street.) Mr. Henry Page, Secretary.
Good Templars' Lodge, No. 795 (held at the Mission room, Green lane).
Herefordshire Friendly Society (Leominster branch).- Mr. William Morgan Brimfield, 38 West street, Agent.
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, (M.U.)-Mr. Wm. Price, Secretary.
Leominster Agricultural Society.- Edwin Gregg, Esq., Hon. Secretary; William Daggs, Esq., Treasurer.
Leominster Horticultural Society.- Mr. Charles Weaver, The Priory, Hon. Secretary and Treasurer.
Leominster Liberal Association (meetings held on the first Tuesday in each month).- John Tertius Southall, Esq., President; Mr. Charles M. Blackwell, Vice-President; Mr. James Ensoll, Treasurer; Mr. George Weaver, Hon. Secretary; Mr. T. Cole, Secretary.
Leominster Working Men's Conservative Association (established 1876), 34 Burgess street.- Thomas Bristow Stallard, Esq., Chairman; Charles Davis Andrews, Esq., Treasurer; Mr. John William Beaman, Secretary. The reading-room is well supplied with daily and weekly newspapers, periodicals, &c.
Leominster Tract Association (established 1859).- Depot at the "Orphans' Printing Press", Broad street; Josiah Newman, Esq., Treasurer; Henry Stanley Newman, Hon. Secretary; George Blacklock, Manager.
Royal Edward Lodge of Freemasons (No. 892), held at the Royal Oak Hotel, South street.
6th Herefordshire Rifle Volunteer Corps, orderly room at Mr. J.J. Davis's, 1 Grange cottages.- E.C. Scarlet, Esq., Lieutenant; William Edward Hyde, Esq., Assistant Surgeon; Rev. P. Seudamore-Stanhope, M.A., Chaplain; Mr. J.J. Davis, Colour-Sergeant; John Butland, Drill Instructor.
PUBLIC OFFICERS. Auditors and Assessors (appointed March 1st, 1876).- Mr. William Phillips, Mayor's Auditor; Messrs. E.A. Williams and John W. Beaman, Auditors for the Borough; Messrs. Thomas Bannister and James Harding, Revising Assessors.
Borough Surveyor.- Mr. Joseph Cox, 1 Cox's buildings, Broad street.
Borough Treasurer.- Edwin Lloyd, Esq., 28 South street.
Clerk to the Borough Magistrates and to the County Magistrates for Leominster Division.- Henry Moore, Esq., offices, 5 and 6 Corn square.
Clerk to the Commissioners of Taxes for Leominster and Leominster Borough Divisions.- Edwin Lloyd, Esq., 28 South street. Clerk to the Guardians of Leominster Union and to the Rural Sanitary Authority.- Edwin Gregg, Esq., 9 Broad street, and the Union.
Clerk to the Leominster District Highway Board.- Henry Moore, Esq.
Clerk to the Leominster and Ledbury and Presteigne Turnpike Trusts. Thomas Sale, Esq., The Forbury, Church street.
Clerk to the Lieutenancy for Leominster Division.- Henry Moore, Esq.
Clerk to the Urban Sanitary Authority.- George Thomas Robinson, Esq., Church street.
Collector of Income and Property Taxes.- Mr. Jas. Wilkes, 6 High St.
Collector of Poor Rates for the Borough.- Mr. William Ross, 9 New St.
Conservative Registration Agent.- George Thomas Robinson, Esq., Church street.
Coroner for the County (Leominster District).- Hy. Moore, Esq., Corn sq.
Fire Brigade.- (The brigade consists of one superintendent and twelve men.) Fire Engine House, New street (three engines kept). William Smith, 68 South street, Superintendent.
Inspector of Common Lodging Houses for the Borough.- Supt. Johnson.
Inspector of Nuisances under the Urban Sanitary Authority.- Mr. Francis Seaborn, Bridge street.
Inspector of Weights and Measures for the Borough.- Supt. Johnson.
Mace Bearer.- John Smith.
Mayor's Beadle.- William Smith, 68 South street.
Mayor's Sergeant-at-Mace.- John Morris.
Overseers.- Messrs. John Arthur Allen and James Ensoll.
Registrar and High Bailiff of the County Court.- George Thomas Robinson, Esq., Church street.
Steward of the Manor of Burton.- Hy. Moore, Esq., 5 and 6 Corn sq.
Sub-Distributor of Stamps.- Mr. Charles James Saxby, 13 High street.
Superintendent of Borough Police.- Mr. George Johnson, New street.
Superintendent of County Police for Leominster and Wigmore Divisions.- Mr. Thomas Dykes, County Police station, Burgess street.
Surveyor of Roads to the Leominster Highway District.- Mr. William John Davis, The Poplands.
Town Clerk.- Thomas Sale, Esq., The Forbury, Church street.
Town Crier.- William Smith, 68 South street.
LEOMINSTER CONVEYANCE DIRECTORY.
Local Railway Companies. Leominster and Bromyard Railway Company, offices, 8 Corn square.- James King King, Esq., Stanton park, Chairman; Josiah Newman, Esq., Vice-Chairman; William Daggs, Esq., Sec.; Edwin Lloyd, Esq., Solicitor.
Leominster and Kington Railway Company, offices, 8 Corn square.- James King King, Esq., Stanton park, Chairman; Thomas Bristow Stallard, Esq., Vice-Chairman; William Daggs, Esq., Secretary; Robert Baxter, Esq., 6 Victoria street, Westminster, London, S.W., Solicitor.

Railway Stations. Leominster Railway Station (Shrewsbury and Hereford Joint Railway, and Leominster and Kington Railway), Etnam street.- George Child, Station Master.
Fordbridge Railway Station (Shrewsbury and Hereford Joint Railway), in Wharton township.- James Roebotham, Station Master.
An Omnibus from the Royal Oak Hotel attends the arrival and departure of all trains.

Goods Offices. Great Western Railway Company's Goods Office, at Railway station.- Oliver Prosser, Carting Agent.
London and North-Western Railway Company's Office, at Railway station.- Samuel Pritchard, Agent.

Carriers to. Aymestrey.- Fredk. Bywater, from the Elephant and Castle, on Fridays.
Bircher Common.- Ann Bailey, from Broad street, and Margaret Heapy, from Blue Boar, on Tuesdays and Fridays.
Byton, Cwms Moor, &c.- J. Griffiths, from the King's Head, on Fridays.
Dilwyn.- Edward Edwards, from the King's Head, on Fridays.
Kingsland.- Frederick Bywater, from the Elephant and Castle, on Fridays; John Griffiths, from the King's Head, on Fridays.
Luston.- Mrs. Fox and Ann Bailey, from Broad street, and Margaret Heapy, from Blue Boar, on Tuesdays and Fridays.
Pudleston.- George Morgan, from the White Swan, on Fridays at 4 p.m.
Shobdon.- John Griffiths, from the King's Head, on Fridays.
Weobley.- Edward Edwards, from the King's Head, on Fridays.
Wigmore.- Fredk. Bywater, from the Elephant and Castle, on Fridays.
Yarpole.- Mrs. Fox, from Broad street, on Tuesdays and Fridays.

OCR/Transcription by Rosemary Lockie in June 2005.

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