The County of Hereford

Extract from Littlebury's Directory & Gazetteer of Herefordshire, 1876/7

Transcribed by Rosemary Lockie, © Copyright 2012

THE COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

HEREFORDSHIRE lies in the west of England, on the borders of Wales. It is an inland county, bounded on the north by Shropshire, on the north-east and cast by Worcestershire, on the south-east by Gloucestershire, on the south by Monmouthshire and Gloucestershire, on the south-west by Brecknockshire, and on the west and north-west by Radnorshire. It is between 51° 49' north and 52° 24' north latitude, and between 2° 20' west and 3° 8' west longitude. Its form is nearly an ellipsis; its greatest length, from Mocktree Common, near Leintwardine on the north, to the opposite border, near Monmouth on the south, is about 40 miles; its greatest width, from Clifford, near Hay on the west, to Cradley on the east, is 35 miles. It comprises an area of 532,898 statute acres, or 836 square miles.

The following table exhibits the comparative population of Herefordshire at each of the eight censuses 1801-71:-

CENSUS YEARS.POPULATION.INCREASE BETWEEN
THE CENSUSES.
 Persons.Males.Females.Number of
Persons.
Rate
per cent.
180188,43643,67144,765......
181193,52646,13247,3945,0906
1821102,66951,26051,4099,14310
1831110,61755,54055,0777,9488
1841113,27256,66756,6052,6552
1851115,48958,11457,3752,2172
1861123,65062,87260,7788,1617
1871125,37062,56262,8081,7201
Total increase in 70 years, 1801-71,36,93442

The population of Herefordshire, though mostly English, is still to some degree Welsh. The number of inhabited houses in 1871 was 26,371; uninhabited, 1,305; building, 79. The average number of persons to an acre is 0.24, and of acres to a person 4.25. Compared with neighbouring counties, there are more people to the square mile in this County than either in Brecknock or Radnor; but less than Gloucester, Worcester, Salop; or Monmouth. The houses and population of the towns in Herefordshire according to the census of 1871 were as follows:

AREA, HOUSES, AND POPULATION OF THE MUNICIPAL BOROUGHS.

MUNICIPAL
BOROUGHS.
AREA
IN
ACRES.
HOUSES.POPULATION.
Inhabited.Uninhabited.BuildingPersons.Males.Females.
Hereford City[1]4,9693,6562441418,3478,7279620
Leominster8,0861,2527345,8632,8203,043

HOUSES AND POPULATION OF TOWNS NOT BEING MUNICIPAL BOROUGHS.

TOWNS.HOUSES.POPULATION.
 Inhabited.Uninhabited.BuildingPersons.Males.Females.
Bromyard-
Township
Entire Parish

297
635

13
42

...
1

1,322
2,978

657
1,479

665
1,499
Kington-
Imp. Com. Dist.
Entire Parish

450
671

38
42

...
...

2,126
3,111

1,050
1,567

1,076
1,544
Ledbury-
Town Limits
Entire Parish

638
969

46
60

1
1

2,967
4,473

1,406
2,155

1,561
2,318
Ross-
Imp. Com. Dist.
Entire Parish

736
929

43
54

1
9

3,586
4,589

1,732
2,218

1,854
2,371

AREA, HOUSES, AND POPULATION OF THE LIEUTENANCY SUB-DIVISIONS.[2]

SUB-DIVISIONS.AREA
IN
ACRES.
HOUSES.POPULATION.
Inhabited.Uninhabited.BuildingPersons.Males.Females.
Bredwardine22,9276983013,1471,5661,581
Bromyard59,0472,458126611,6165,9945,622
Dore67,0621,7168418,1584,2093,949
Harewood's End47,7861,98910179,2474,6624,585
Hereford59,9576,3863332731,09215,00316,089
Kington45,2191,8538668,9944,5474,447
Ledbury45,4172,565124811,9415,9316,010
Leominster62,5683,365170915,6867,8837,803
Ross42,1802,5371281012,1185,9766,142
Weobley45,2901,7776528,3454,2114,134
Wigmore35,4451,0275825,0262,5802,446
Total532,89826,3711,30579125,37062,56262,808

POLITICAL DIVISIONS, REPRESENTATION, ETC.- Herefordshire comprises eleven hundreds,[3] the city of Hereford, and the municipal borough of Leominster. The county has one court of quarter sessions, and is divided into eleven petty sessional divisions:[4] the city of Hereford has a commission of the peace and a separate court of quarter sessions; and the borough of Leominster has a commission of the peace. The county is not divided for parliamentary election purposes. It returns six members to Parliament - viz., three for the county; two for the city of Hereford; and one for the borough of Leominster. (The names of the members will be found on page 48.) Leominster sent two members until 1867, but by the operation of the "Representation of the People Act" it is now entitled to return one member only. Ledbury, Ross, Bromyard, and Weobley were formerly privileged to send representatives, but are now under the county franchise. Herefordshire is included in the Oxford circuit of the judges. For police purposes the county is divided into eleven divisions; the city of Hereford and the borough of Leominster have their own police. There are nine highway districts, which however do not comprise the whole of the county. The number of townships for highway and manorial purposes is about 330. County courts[5] are held at Hereford, Leominster, Ledbury, Ross, Kington, and Bromyard: The number of parishes and townships for poor-law purposes is about 280. There are eight union districts[6] in the county, but some border parishes are comprised in unions belonging to Monmouthshire, Brecknockshire, Radnorshire, Shropshire, Worcestershire, and Gloucestershire.

HISTORY.- This county takes its name from the city of Hereford, which is said to be pure Saxon, and to signify The Ford of the Army, from the Welsh word Henfford (the old road or way); either supposition, certainly, is significant of the situation of the place, which stands on the Wye, and was formerly the barrier between England and Wales. As the two nations were almost always at war one with another, this town was generally the headquarters of such Saxon or English forces as were stationed in the County; and at this place both armies probably forded the river when they passed out of Wales into England, or out of England into Wales. This account of the derivation of the name is, however, somewhat doubtful, as the ancient British name of the county was Ereinwg; and it is therefore conjectured that Here, the first part of the Saxon name, was implicitly borrowed from Erei, the first part of the British; so that except Erei in British, and Here in Saxon, have the same signification, Hereford was not intended to express the Ford of the Army. What Ereinwg signifies is not known, but the Saxons probably only changed the terrain termination, and called the place the Ford of Erei, considering Erei not as a significant word, but the proper name of the place. Some, however, have supposed that both the British and Saxon names are derived from Arconium, the name of an ancient town near this place, mentioned by Antonius, which is said to have been destroyed by an earthquake, and Hereford to have been built in its stead. Another derivation is assigned to Hereford by the author of the "Leominster Guide" (Rev. J. Williams). After the town had been destroyed by the Welsh, Harold is recorded to have built the walls of the city, and to have strengthened the castle; and after him the place, which is now often termed Hariford by the peasantry, was called Haroldford, signifying Harold's Fort or Castle.

Herefordshire, together with the adjacent counties of Radnor, Brecknock, Monmouth, and Glamorgan, constituted that district which at the period of the Roman invasion was inhabited by the Silures, a brave and hardy people of Iberian or Euskardian origin, who, in conjunction with the Ordovices, or inhabitants of North Wales, for a considerable time retarded the progress of the Roman arms; for it appears that the grand object of all the operations of Ostorius Scapula, who commanded under the Emperor Claudius, was the conquest of these nations which had chosen the gallant Caractacus as their chieftain.

Aulus Plautius, the predecessor of Ostorius, had constructed in the vicinity of the Severn and the Avon a chain of forts, which, on the arrival of Ostorius, appears to have been occupied by the Roman army, previous to which the country of the Silures and Ordovices had suffered no diminution from the Roman armies. "The frontier of the one; now the county of Hereford", says Mr. Duncumb, "met the frontier of the other, Shropshire, on the border of the present county of Worcester; and there presented the nearest, if not the only point of attack, from which Ostorius could make an impression on both nations, or take advantage of circumstances to act against either. This geographical statement has led to a conjecture that a line of entrenchments, extending on the banks of the river Teme from the vicinity of Worcester to the scene of the subsequent battle, was occupied by Caractacus and Ostorius, the former retreating as the latter advanced; and thus drawing on the Romans to a place advantageously formed for defence, and as much as possible detached from any assistance which might be afforded to them in case of their defeat, or any other emergency. This line is supposed to have begun on Malvern hills, where British and Roman entrenchments are still to be seen. The two next, the one Roman, the other British, occurred at Whitbourne; they were situated on the opposite sides of a valley, as if opposed to each other; but the traces of both are now almost obliterated. The fourth is at Thornbury, a British post of great strength, between Bromyard and Leominster. The fifth at Croft, another very strong British camp, between Leominster and Wigmore. The sixth is a large Roman entrenchment, called Brandon; and the seventh, which is British, is on Coxwall-Knoll, near Brampton Brian. Near Downton, also, on the east of Leintwardine, is a small entrenchment which was apparently thrown up to guard the passage of the Teme at that place; and was probably connected with the operations supposed to have taken place on the line above mentioned.

"Recurring to the proceedings of the Britons, we learn from Tacitus that, in addition to their natural valour, they were now animated by confidence in a leader whom neither prosperity could unguard nor adversity deject, and whose fame had far surpassed that of all his contemporaries. Inferior in numbers; but trusting to his own military skill and knowledge of the country, Caractacus determined that the territories of the Ordovices should be the scene of his defence; and the spot which he finally chose for the struggle is described by the historian as in all respects discouraging to his enemies and favourable to himself. Where nature had not rendered the eminence inaccessible, he piled large stones on each other in the form of a rampart; a stream of irregular depth flowed in his front, and a strong body of troops were stationed on the outside of his works in battle array. The leaders of the various tribes prepared them for the contest by exciting their hopes, by inflaming their resentments, and by urging every motive that could animate their valour. Caractacus himself, darting through the ranks, exclaimed, 'Remember, Britons, this day is to decide whether we shall be slaves or free! Recollect and imitate the achievements of our ancestors, whose valour expelled Julius Caesar from our coasts, rescued their country from paying tribute to foreigners, and saved their wives and daughters from infamy and violation!' Inflamed by this address, every one shouted applause, and bound themselves, by their peculiar oaths, to conquer or perish.

"Ostorius was staggered by the resolute appearance and formidable position of his adversaries; but his troops eagerly demanded battle, and exclaimed that Roman valour could surmount every obstacle. Observing, therefore, what points were most proper for the attack, he led on his army, and forded the river without difficulty; but before they could reach the rampart of stone, the Romans suffered severely from the darts of the Britons, and success long appeared doubtful. At length, forming the testudo, or shell, by locking their shields together over their heads, they reached the wall, and making several breaches in it, brought on a close engagement. Unprovided with helmets or breastplates, the Britons could not withstand the attack, but fell back towards the summit of the hill; a few desperate efforts from this point could not avail them, and victory declared for the Romans. The wife and daughter of Caractacus were taken on the field of battle, and his brothers surrendered themselves prisoners; he himself escaped into the country of the Brigantes, and claimed the protection of their: queen, Cartismandua; but dreading the resentment of the Romans, which bad been recently directed against her territories, she, was induced to deliver him bound to Ostorius."

Antiquaries and historians have greatly differed respecting the spot on which this important battle was fought; according to Camden, it took place on the high eminence called Caer-Caradoc, in Shropshire, about three miles north of the Teme, near the junction of the Jay and the Colne with that river. General Roy, however, in his military antiquities, originally suggested the real scene of this action to have been at Coxwall Knoll, which idea is likewise adopted by Mr. Duncumb, who observes that the situation, and other circumstances of this eminence, strikingly correspond with the account given by the Roman historians. "Coxwall Knoll", he continues, "is situated in a beautiful valley near Brampton Brian; it is luxuriantly covered with wood; one part of it, that towards the south, is within the limits of Herefordshire, whilst that towards the north is within those of Shropshire. On the top is a very strong entrenchment of British construction, and of much greater extent than that at Caer-Caradoc. The access is difficult on all sides; on the south an artificial terrace is cut along the brow of the hill in front of the entrenchment; and the river Teme continually varies in its depth and impetuosity, according to the proportion of rain received into its channel from the adjacent hills. Immediately opposite, and at the distance of one mile, with the river between them, is the Roman post of Brandon, a single square work with four posts, more strong towards Coxwall than in any other part. In the supposed line of march, by Caractacus and Ostorius, the latter would occupy Brandon when the former had retreated to Coxwall. Thus situated, the formidable situation of the Britons, and the obstacles to be encountered in attacking them, were all within view of the Romans. They demanded and were led to the combat: fording the river, they reached the rampart, which probably stood on the artificial terrace described by General Roy, and finally defeated the Britons in the entrenchments above. To these conjectures, which are offered with the utmost deference, it may be opposed that the Teme near Coxwall is but an inconsiderable river, having a smooth and gravelly bottom, and so little water, except when flooded from the hills, that troops may march across it in line for two or three miles together."

A temporary suspension of the war was produced by the defeat and captivity of Caractacus; but the determined spirits of the Silures were, however, not yet subdued, for after a short interval of preparation, they again took the field, and by their sudden attacks, whenever circumstances afforded a prospect of success, they kept the Romans in perpetual alarm. They were likewise rendered desperate by a declaration of Ostorius that the very name of the Silures should be extirpated, as that of the Sigambri had been in Gaul; so far, however, was the purpose of this general from being accomplished, that he himself fell a victim to the fatigue and anxiety occasioned by the increased success of the Silurian arms.

Neither the terrors of coercion nor the power of clemency, during the various successive proprietorships for upwards of twenty years, were able to reduce the Silures to Roman bondage; at length, however, the superior discipline of the Roman soldiers, aided by the military talents of Julius Frontinus, their general, obliged this brave people, after relinquishing to the enemy the Forest of Dean, and the present counties of Hereford and Monmouth, to retire into the fastnesses of Wales, from whence, offering no further resistance to the Roman domination, the complete and undisturbed possession of South Britain was thus ensured to the conquerors, who included Herefordshire in the district named Britannia Secunda, A.D. 73.

Of the occupation by the Silures a record still remains in the names of several of the streams and localities in the county, e.g., Lugg, the bright stream; Lugwardine, the camp-hill by the Lugg; Mordiford, the field of the two waters; Bredwardine, the water-camp of the district; Dinmore, the great camp; Hentland, the old sacred enclosure; and many others. The chief traces of Roman occupation are in the remains of roads and encampments.

Magna, now Kenchester, and Ariconium, near Ross, two of the principal stations of the Itinerary of Antoninus, together with the post of Bravinium, or Brandon, are situated within the limits of this county. Watling Street, which was one of the main thoroughfares in England, enters the county on the north from Shropshire, near Leintwardine, whence, after passing the river Teme, it proceeds to the camp of Brandon, and continuing in a southern direction passes by Wigmore, Mortimer's Cross, Street, Stretford, and Portway, to Kenchester, from whence inclining to the south-west, after crossing the river Wye, near the Weir, and passing Kingstone, Dore, and Longtown, enters Monmouthshire, and proceeds to Abergavenny, the Gobannium of the Romans. This road is very visible near Madley; and several entrenchments likewise occur in different parts of the line as it crosses Herefordshire. A second Roman road enters this county on the south-east from Gloucestershire, which appears to have connected the stations of Glevum (or Gloucester), Ariconium (near Ross), Blestium (or Monmouth), and Burrium (or Usk). A third Roman road enters this county from Worcestershire, and passing Froome's-Hill, Stretton-Grandison, Lugg-bridge, Holmer, and Stretton-Sugwas, proceeds to Kenchester. To the south of the Herefordshire Beacon is a fourth ancient road, the Ridgeway, which extends for several miles towards Eastnor in a kind of circular direction.

The Silures, on the decline of the Roman power, were among the first in attempting to regain that independence which they had been the last in surrendering; for uniting with the other Britons, under the successive commands of Uther Pendragon and Arthur, they once more displayed their bravery in defending the island from Saxon usurpation. Their resistance, however, proved unavailing, in consequence of the numerous hordes of these barbarians which were continually landing upon our shores, and the internal divisions that subsisted among the natives; so that the Britons being driven to the mountains of Wales, Herefordshire became incorporated with the Saxon kingdom of Mercia. This, however, was not effected till the Saxon power in this district had arrived at its greatest height, under the renowned Offa, who the better to secure his kingdom, which comprehended the greatest part of this county, together with considerable portions of Radnorshire, Monmouthshire, and Shropshire, made a broad ditch, called Offa's Dyke, 100 miles in length, extending from the estuary of the Dee to the mouth of the Wye. Traces of this dyke are still visible at Bishopstone, Moorhampton, Lyonshall, and Stanton-upon-Arrow. For still greater security he removed his court to Southtown, now Sutton, about three miles north-west from Hereford, where he erected a palace, which he defended with entrenchments, The Danes about the end of the 8th century obtained a temporary possession of Mercia, but were expelled by Buthred, the lawful prince, who after a reign of about twenty years was himself defeated by these invaders, and deprived of his kingdom, which was afterwards subdued by Alured, King of the West Saxons, who annexed it to his own, and chose as his successor Egbert of Wessex (A.D. 827), who having united the various Saxon states into one sovereignty, thus laid the foundation of the glory and pre-eminence of Britain. Herefordshire, however, during the wars which occurred between the time of the reign of this prince and the complete subjugation of Wales, suffered greatly from the different incursions made by the brave descendants of the Ancient Britons at various periods.

About the year 939, Athelstan having reduced the Britons to a temporary subjection, appointed the river Wye to be the boundary between England and Wales; and to this day the Welsh side abounds with names of places derived from the British language, whilst they rarely occur on the other.

It appears from several authorities that the Silures lost their name when their country was subdued by the Saxon arms, and this district then formed part of Ferlex or Ferregs, being the tract of country between the Severn and the Wye. Mr. Price, in his historical account of Herefordshire, says, that "the Saxons called it Fernleg, from ferns growing about it". Leland, quoted by Mr. Duncumb, mentions that "it was called Fernlege and Fernlaz by the Saxons, from the fern". Mr. Jones, in his history of Brecknockshire, says, "All our pedigrees notice the conquest of Ferlex, as they call it, between the Severn and Wye". The Rev. W. J. Rees, in the Hereford Guide, published in 1806, says, that "the district was called by the Saxons, Fernleg, on account: of the quantity of fern then growing in it". A great portion of this county was included in the "Marches", the disputed ground between the English and Welsh. The chief event in connection with these disputes was an invasion of the county by a Welsh prince named Gryffth, in the year 1055. He defeated his opponents under the Earl of Hereford, and captured the city of Hereford. After setting fire to the cathedral, and plundering and murdering the inhabitants, he retired laden with spoil. To avenge this outrage, Harold, the son of Earl Godwin, was sent into the Marches by King Edward the Confessor. After the Welsh were reduced to submission a treaty was concluded; which they took every opportunity to break. To punish them, Harold, on ascending the throne, issued a decree that every Welshman found on the east side of Offa's Dyke should lose his right hand. Notwithstanding these severe measures the Welsh continued their inroads, and for several centuries gave great annoyance to the county.

With the exception of these border feuds, no event of importance occurred till the reign of Stephen. In the contest between this monarch and Maude, the rightful heir to the throne, Herefordshire was the scene of several contests, in one of which the castle at Weobley was destroyed. The demolition of castles in the succeeding reign so weakened the western borders of the county that the Welsh were again able to renew their ravages.

In the troubled reign of Edward II. the county was the scene of much misery. The king himself, on his death-march to Berkeley Castle, stayed at Ledbury; and his favourites, Hugh de Spenser, Baldoe, and Reding, were executed at Hereford.

No other event of importance occurred till the Wars of the Roses, when a battle was fought at Mortimer's Cross, in the parish of Kingsland, A.D. 1461, between the forces of the Earl of March (afterwards Edward IV.), on the side of the house of York, and those of Henry VI. commanded by the Earl of Pembroke on the side of Lancaster. The slaughter was great on both sides, 4,000 being left dead on the field, and many Welsh persons of distinction were taken prisoners, among whom was Owen Tudor, who was afterwards beheaded at Hereford, and buried in the church of the Greyfriars, near the present Wye bridge.

Passing over many years of tranquillity, we come to the troublous times of Charles I., A.D. 1645. In the civil war of this reign, the city of Hereford was besieged and captured by the Parliamentarians under Sir William Waller, and retaken by the Royalists. It afterwards fell a prey to the Scots, but was relieved by Charles on his retreat from Naseby. Since this period the history of Herefordshire presents no facts deserving special mention.

PHYSICAL FEATURES, CLIMATE, ETC.- The general aspect of Herefordshire is extremely beautiful; its surface is finely diversified and broken by swelling heights, so as greatly to resemble the more central parts of Kent. From many of these elevations the prospects are extremely fine, but are peculiarly so from the Malvern hills and Black mountains. An observer stationed at Hereford, nearly in the centre of the county, would see the Malvern hills exactly in the east, the Hatterals in the west, and the Radnor hills in the north-west. The fertility of the soil is very great, and the country is clothed in almost perpetual verdure. On every side a luxuriance of vegetation is exhibited in widely-extended corn-fields, teeming orchards, expansive meadows, and flourishing hop-grounds. The courses of the rivers and brooks may be traced from any of the adjacent eminences by the rich lines of wood which skirt their margins; much valuable timber is also scattered over the country in hedgerows, as well as on the sides and summits of the knolls and higher elevations. Every part seems uniformly productive, except perhaps on the northern and western outskirts. Nor is the air less congenial to health than the face of the country is interesting to view.

Although the whole-county has a general slope from north to south towards the basin of the Severn, the chief elevations are in the west and east. The hills lie in parallel lines round or near the borders of the county, occasionally sending off spurs into the interior. The chief line of elevation in the west is the Hatteral range of the Black mountains, from the summit. of which a splendid view of the greater portion of the county can be obtained. It runs in the direction, N.W. to S.E. between the town of Hay and the village of Pandy, a distance of about 14 miles. The principal hills lying east of the Hatterals are- (1) A range extending from Cusop, near Hay, to a point called Mynydd Ferdyn, between the parishes of Rowlstone and Clodock; the upper portions of the ridge are called Cusop hill and Vagar hill. (2) A chain of heights forming the western edge of the "Golden Valley"; the highest points are Snodhill and the Mescotts. (3) The range enclosing the "Golden Valley" on the east; the highest and most interesting part of this range commences at Merbage point, near Bredwardine, and is continued along Arthur Stone ridge and Stockley hill, terminating with the low elevation known as the Bacho hill. The valleys in this part of Herefordshire are the most beautiful, and contain same of the best soil in the county. They all run in the same general direction as the Hatterals, and are well watered. The most conspicuous hills in the south are - (1) Garway hill, which runs in the same direction as the preceding ranges, and near the S.W. border of the county, overlooking the Monnow valley; at right angles to this hill, and almost joining it, is a hill, called, from its peculiar shape, (2) Saddlebow hill, near to which is (3) Scudamore hill. This line of elevation may be traced for a few miles in the direction of Hereford, along the points (4) Aconbury, (5) Callow, (6) Dinedor. Numerous streams rise in this range, draining the slopes to the Wye and Monnow. Farther south there are no continuous elevations, but the following stand out prominently on the borders of Gloucestershire - (1) Little Doward, (2) Great Doward, (3) Welsh Bicknor, (4) Bishop's Wood, and (5) May hill. The hills in the east correspond in height with those on the opposite side of the county. The most important are - (1) the Malvern range, the highest point of which in Herefordshire is the Hereford Beacon. The view from this point is more extensive than that from the Hatterals, inasmuch as it includes, besides Herefordshire, portions of Worcestershire, Gloucestershire, Monmouthshire, Radnorshire, Shropshire, Somersetshire, and Warwickshire. This range exercises an important influence over the climate of East Herefordshire, by protecting it from the keen east blasts. The Malvern hills are composed of the oldest kind of rocks with which we are acquainted. (2) A range of hills extends from Eastnor towards Ledbury, and thence northwards in the direction of Colwall. The part on which Ledbury is built is called Dog hill. (3) A range commencing at Frome's hill, on the right hank of the Frome river, and extending as far north as Wolferlow. (4) Farther south, a range may be traced from the Lea, along the Perrystone and Marcle hills, to Tarrington. The principal hills in the north and north-west are - (1) those of Downton and Leintwardine; but there is an important watershed connected with the Wye basin, which has yet to be indicated: it may be traced through the following points:- Darvold forest, Stapleton hill, Shobdon hill, Wapley hill, and Hergest ridge; and on the right bank of the Arrow, the Brilley mountain. (2) From a point called Lady Lift, near Weobley, two ranges run S.E. , called respectively Foxley hill and Wormsley hill: the line of elevation is continued as far as Credenhill, within four miles of Hereford. (3) A few miles to the N.E. is a range running east and west called Dinmore hill, and farther still, Brierley hill. There are several other detached hills in various parts of the county- e.g. Athelstan or Aylestone hill, near Hereford; Wall hill, near Ledbury, &c. The climate of Herefordshire varies with the elevation, and is commonly very healthy, as the longevity of the inhabitants proves. As an instance of this longevity, it is recorded that Serjeant Hoskyns entertained James I. at Ingeston house, near Ross, by causing the morrice dance to be exhibited by ten old men and women, whose united ages amounted to over 1000 years. The most healthy districts are in the neighbourhood of Ross and Ledbury. The latter is near the Malvern hills, which are much resorted to by invalids and others, on account of the salubrity of the air. The prevalent winds are westerly : they are often boisterous, and generally come laden with moisture from the Atlantic. The north and east winds are cold and dry, and affect nearly all parts of the county alike, there being no elevation sufficient to ward them off. South winds almost invariably bring rain; those from north-west and south-west are variable in character, but mostly wet. The rain from the north-west produces immediate floods in the Wye. There is a considerable difference of temperature between the lowland and the hills. This is best seen at the approach of winter, when the Hatterals and Radnor hills are often deeply coated with snow for several weeks before any appears in the neighbourhood of Hereford.

SOIL AND PRODUCTIONS.- Of the whole surface of Herefordshire, about 500,000 acres (or more than 90 per cent.) are either arable or pasture land. The county is, therefore, pre-eminently an agricultural county. In the rural districts the greater part of the land is under tillage; but in the vicinity of the towns, and on the banks of the rivers, it is nearly all pasturage. The meadows on the banks, of the Lugg are particularly noted for their richness of pasture. Herefordshire belongs mostly to the old red sandstone formation, and the soil is chiefly a deep heavy loam, which varies greatly in its degree of tenacity in different parts of the county. The eastern side of the county is principally a stiff clay, in many places of a red colour; a great proportion of the hundred of Wormelow, on the south, is a light sand. The substratum is mostly limestone, of different qualities - in some parts assuming the properties of marble, and becoming beautifully variegated with red and white veins. Towards the western border the soil is cold and retentive of moisture, but still argillaceous, with a base of soft crumbling stone, which decomposes on exposure to the atmosphere, or of nodules of impure limestone. Deep beds of gravel are occasionally met with in the vicinity of Hereford; and the subsoil of several of the hills is of a siliceous grit. The heavy soils have been much improved of late years by drainage and careful tillage; the lighter soils require a constant supply of good manure. Iron ore has been met with in the parts bordering on Gloucestershire, but none has been dug of late years, though from the considerable quantities that have been discovered imperfectly smelted, and from the remains of hand-blomaries that have also been found, it has been thought that some iron works were established here as early as the Roman times. A few beds of coal exist on the borders of Gloucestershire; and clay for making bricks is found in many places.

The soil is extremely propitious to the growth of trees - many species growing up spontaneously, and becoming strong and vigorous in a short period. The oak, elm, beech, poplar, and willow are particularly flourishing; Croft, Shobdon, Hampton, Berrington, and Brampton Brian parks, are famous for their large and majestic oak trees, which exceed in dimentions those that grow in any other part of the kingdom. Coppice wood is extremely abundant, the sides and summits of many of the hills and upland grounds being covered with plantations. The ash coppices are very valuable and numerous; those of alder are also plentiful in low and marshy situations. Lord Coningsby is said to have been the importer of the willow into this country from Holland, without the assistance of which tree it would be almost impossible to supply the numerous hop-yards with poles.

Orchards of apple trees and pear trees are very numerous. The cider produced in this county is equal to any in the kingdom. The period at which the cultivation of orchards became a pre-eminent branch of the rural economy of England appears to have been early in the reign of Henry VIII. Herefordshire is indebted for all the old fine cider fruits to the industry of the planters of the early part of the last century, and the end of the preceding one. By the spirited exertions of Lord Scudamore of Holme Lacy, and other gentlemen of the county, it became in a manner one entire orchard. No garden can surpass the general view of this district during the apple season. The most approved site for an orchard is that which is open to the south-east, and sheltered in other points, but particularly in the opposite direction; the best adapted soil is a loam of moderate depth, with a subsoil of chalk. The colours of good cider fruits are red and yellow; of an astringent taste; green colour is to be avoided. Cider composed of the juices of mixed fruits generally succeeds with greater certainty than that made with one kind. In grinding the fruits, care is taken to have as much of the juice of .the rinds and kernels as can possibly be obtained. The must or pomage should be suffered to remain about twenty-four hours before it be taken to the press. The quantity of apples sufficient to fill the provincial hogshead of one hundred and ten gallons, varies from twenty-four to thirty bushels. Cider manufactured from good fruit will retain a considerable portion of its sweetness at the end of three or four years. The best time for bottling cider is when it is from eighteen months to two years old; if perfectly secured from the air, by the tightness of the cork, it may be kept to any age. The annual produce of the fruit, in a plentiful year, is almost beyond conception; Twenty hogsheads of cider has been made from the produce of a single acre of orchard ground. This excessive fruitage, however, seldom occurs more than once in four years. If the new varieties be judiciously adapted to different soils and situations, and proper use be made of the advantage of having fruits which blossom at different times, some early and some late, the same number of acres which are at present planted with apple trees will afford four times the quantity of cider now produced, and of a superior quantity; nor will a total failure of fruit, or anything approaching it, scarcely ever occur. The common price of cider at the mill or press varies from two to five pounds per hogshead. The principal markets are London, Bristol, Birmingham, Manchester, South Wales, Ireland, &c. The culture of the pear tree, and the management of perry, differ so little from those of the apple tree and its produce, that the same general rules are applicable to both.

This county affords nearly an equal share of pasture and arable land. Of all the crops grown in the lowlands, wheat and barley are those to which the farmer devotes most labour. The yield depends upon the exact time of sowing, as well as upon the richness of the Soil. Unfavourable weather, causing delay in the sowing season, is very injurious to the crop. The average yield of wheat is about 40 bushels per acre, but instances are not rare of 60 bushels having been produced. In bad seasons, and on very poor ground, the amount has been as low as 15, or even 10 bushels; while in some cases the yield is hardly equivalent to the amount sown. Barley is sown in March or April, and comes to perfection in about three months. With it is generally sown clever, the farmer thereby saving the expense of tillage for the ensuing year. Oats are sown on poor ground, and produce a crop where neither wheat nor barley would thrive. Beans, pease, ryegrass, and vetches, complete the list of cereals. Hops are extensively cultivated in the middle and eastern parts of the county. In a favourable season they are exceedingly profitable, but the crop is always uncertain. Hops were introduced into this kingdom in the year 1524. In 1528 a petition to restrain their use was presented to Parliament; and in that petition they were denominated "most pernicious and wicked weeds". Though thus styled at that period, they became great favourites before the century expired; and in 1603 an Act was passed to prevent the hops from being adulterated. They are of two kinds, White and Red, but each has several varieties. The white hops are the most delicate, the red the more hardy. Hop-yards worked by hand, if properly manured, flourish during, forty or fifty years; but the plough hop-lands are generally worn out in twenty or thirty years. About seven hundredweight of hops is estimated as a fair produce from an acre containing two thousand poles, equal to about two-thirds of a statute acre. Potatoes, turnips, Swedes, mangold-wurzels, &c., are cultivated to a fair extent. Mistletoe, found chiefly on the apple tree, forms an important article of export. In tire neighbourhood of Hereford there are about 700 species of grasses, ferns, and flowering plants. From this number, large as it is, it must not be inferred that this district has a particularly rich flora. The Hereford cattle are regarded by the best informed judges as a superior breed to any in this island. The other breeds which nearly resemble them are those of Devon and Sussex; and of the Vale of Pickering, in Yorkshire. They are of the middle-horned kind, with a large and athletic form, and unusually sleek in appearance, from the bright and silky nature of the coating. The prevailing colour is a reddish-brown, with white and bald faces. The heifers fat kindly at an early age, and the calves also are much in repute for this quality. The Herefordshire breed of sheep is not so famous as that of the cattle, although in symmetry of shape, flavour of meat, and quality of wool, they are superior to most flocks in England. They are small, white-faced, and hornless, and are distinguished by the name of "Ryeland", from a district in the southern part of the county. Horses, for farm work, are bred in great numbers, and are of a fair quality. The county is noted for its poultry. The size of the farms is not in general extensive. Of the male population nearly 3,000 are farmers, who give employment to about 11,000 labourers, including waggoners, shepherds, cow-men, &c. Mining and fishing give employment to about 200 people. The chief salmon fisheries on the Wye are between Hereford and Ross. This county is not much distinguished for manufactures. About fifty years ago hats and gloves were made in Leominster and Hereford, but never to any great extent. At Withington, near Hereford, there is an extensive manufactory of encaustic tiles; and brickmaking is carried on in various parts of the county. Agricultural implements are made at Ross, Leominster, and other places. There are several large breweries in the county. The mechanics are mostly engaged in the timber trade, carpenters, masons, smiths, tanners, skinners, &c.

The following extracts relating to Herefordshire are taken from the Government Agricultural Returns for 1874:-

Total Area of Herefordshire in Statute Acres. ABSTRACT OF ACREAGE (IN STATUTE ACRES) UNDER CROPS AND GRASS.
Total of Acreage under all kinds of Crops, bare Fallow, and Grass. Under Corn Crops. Under Green Crops. Under Clover, Sainfoin, and Grasses under Rotation. Permanent Pasture, or Grass, not broken up in Rotation (exclusive of Heath or Mountain Land). Percentage of Corn Crops to Total Acreage under all kinds of Crops, bare Fallow, and Grass.
532,898431,166110,13135,49239,661229,57225.5

Total of Acreage
under all kinds of
Crops, bare Fallow,
and Grass.
ACREAGE UNDER EACH DESCRIPTION OF CORN CROP.
Wheat.Barley or Bere.Oats.Rye.Beans.Peas.Total under
Corn Crops.
431, 16661,82720,14210,4905510,8046,813110,131

Total of Acreage under Green Crops. ACREAGE UNDER EACH DESCRIPTION OF GREEN CROP.
Potatoes.Turnips and Swedes.Mangold.Carrots.Cabbage, Kohl-Rabi, and Rape.Vetches, Lucerne, and any other Green Crop (except Clover or Grass).
35,4922,64824,8471,790701675,970

ACREAGE UNDER.
Flax.Hops.Bare Fallow, or Uncropped Arable Land. Clover, Sainfoin, and Grasses under Rotation. Permanent Pasture, Meadow, or Grass, not broken up in Rotation (exclusive of Heath or Mountain Land).
For Hay.Not
for Hay.
Total.For Hay.Not
for Hay.
Total.
225,87210,41620,53519,12639,66158,156171,416229,572

ACREAGE UNDER ORCHARDS, MARKET GARDENS, NURSERY GROUNDS, AND WOODS.
ORCHARDS, ETC.MARKET GARDENS.NURSERY GROUNDS.WOODS.
21,5343212734,885

TOTAL AND PROPORTIONATE NUMBER OF LIVE STOCK AS RETURNED UPON THE 25th JUNE 1873.
HORSES.CATTLE.SHEEP.PIGS.
Number used solely for Agriculture, &c., as returned by Occupiers of Land.Proportionate Number to every 100 acres under Crops, bare Fallow, and Grass. Total Number Returned.Proportionate Number to every 100 acres under Crops, bare Fallow, and Grass. Total Number Returned.Proportionate Number to every 100 acres under Crops, bare Fallow, and Grass. Total Number Returned.Proportionate Number to every 100 acres under Crops, bare Fallow, and Grass.
19,9234.680,53218.7366,11884.928,4246.6

HORSES (including PONIES), as returned by Occupiers of Land.CATTLE.SHEEP.
Used solely for purposes of Agriculture, &c.Unbroken Horses of any Age, and Mares kept solely for the purpose of Breeding.Total. Cows and Heifers in Milk or Calf.OTHER CATTLE.Total.1 Year Old and above.Under 1 Year Old.Total.
2 Years of Age and above.Under 2 Years of Age.
13,0716,85219,92326,73419,15634,64280,532224,502141,616366,118

RAILWAYS, RIVERS, AND CANALS.- The railways join the general railway systems - the city of Hereford being the important railway centre. By means of the Shrewsbury and Hereford railway (opened in December 1853), which is jointly the property of the Great Western and the London and North-Western railway companies, the county has direct communication with the important manufacturing districts of the north of England, and the romantic district of North Wales. Leaving Hereford, this line runs in a northerly direction through Moreton-on-Lugg, Dinmore, Fordbridge, Leominster, Eye, and Wooferton, a distance of 19 miles in this county. The Newport, Abergavenny, and Hereford railway (opened December 1853) passes through Tram Inn, St. Devereux, Pontrilas, and Pandy stations, being a distance of about 17 miles in this county from Hereford. This line forms a portion of the West Midland section of the Great Western railway, as does also a branch from Hereford to Worcester, which considerably shortens the route from the former city to the midland counties generally, and is a direct route to the metropolis. The Hereford . and Worcester railway, running in an easterly direction through Withington, Stoke Edith, Ashperton, Ledbury, and Colwall to Malvern tunnel, passes through about 20 miles of Herefordshire. The Hereford, Ross, and Gloucester railway was opened in June 1855. It passes through Holme Lacy, Fawley, Ross, and Mitcheldean Road (a distance of 16 miles in this county), and communicates with the metropolis via Gloucester, and places on the South Wales main line, Bristol, Bath, &c, The Ross and Monmouth railway, opened in 1874, follows the course of the Wye nearly the whole of the 12 miles of line, and runs through some of the finest scenery, in England. Between Ross and Monmouth there are three stations - Kerne Bridge, Lydbrook, and Symonds' Yat, placed at convenient distances apart. At Lydbrook is a junction with the Severn and Wye railway, which forms a connecting link between the Ross and Monmouth and the South Wales railways, passing through the Forest of Dean, and joining the latter line at Lydney. The recent extension of the Ross and Monmouth line to Chepstow affords the most complete accommodation to the tourist of the Wye. The Hereford, Hay, and Brecon railway (opened in 1864) opens up an intercourse with an important portion of the Principality of Wales. It passes through Credenhill, Moorhampton, Kinnersley, Eardisley, and Whitney, to Hay, &c., a distance of 20 miles in this county. This line is worked by the Midland railway company, who also have running powers over the Worcester and Hereford branch of the Great Western railway. The Leominster and Kington railway, which joins the Shrewsbury and Hereford railway at Leominster, was opened in August 1858, and is leased to the Great Western railway company. From Leominster it passes through Kingsland, Pembridge, and Titley to Kington, a distance of 14 miles in this county. The branch railway connecting Presteigne - the county town of Radnorshire - with the Leominster and Kington line, was opened on September 9th, 1875. This line commences at Titley, passes through Leen farm, to Stanton-upon-Arrow, in front of the Rodd farm via Corton into Presteigne. The Kington and Eardisley line was opened for traffic on August 3rd, 1874. This line is about 7 miles in length. It commences at Titley junction and passes through Lyonshall and Almeley, and joins the Hereford, Hay, and Brecon branch of the Midland railway at Eardisley. The line from Kington to New Radnor, which was opened in August 1875, will eventually become part of a system of railways from Worcester to Aberystwith, the Acts for which have been obtained. The Worcester and Bromyard railway was opened to Yearsett (3½ miles from the latter town) in 1874, and will be completed in 1877. It is worked by the Great Western railway company. A new line is proposed by the Leominster and Bromyard railway company, which will give increased facilities for intercommunication, and connect Leominster with the city of Worcester. An Act has recently passed the legislature authorising the construction of a railway through the Golden Valley, and the first sod was cut by Lady Cornewall, of Moccas court, on the 31st of August, 1876. This line will commence at Dorstone, and run parallel with the river Dore through the valley, having stations at Peterchurch, Vowchurch, and Abbey Dore, and will join the Great Western main line at Pontrilas. It is intended eventually to extend it from Dorstone to Eardisley on one hand, and from Pontrilas (via Monnow valley) to Monmouth on the other. Railways have also been proposed from Ross to Ledbury, and from Gloucester via Newent to Ledbury, but the plans seem at present in abeyance.

The fine rivers by which this county is watered may be reckoned among the chief causes of its fertility and pleasantness. Of these, the Wye claims pre-eminence; rising near the summit of Plinlimmon, in Montgomeryshire, it flows between the counties of Brecknock and Radnor, and afterwards enters Herefordshire near Clifford, the reputed birth place of the ill-fated Fair Rosamond. Winding to the east above Clifford castle, it glides beautifully between orchards, meadows, and corn-fields, till it reaches the abrupt and commanding eminence of Mawbech hill; thence, darting suddenly through the bold arches of Bredwardine bridge, it flows on to Hereford, through a more level but still extremely pleasant country. Between Hay and Hereford no stream of importance enters the Wye, but about four miles below the latter city it is joined, on the left bank, by the Lugg, which drains the northern parts of the county. From Hereford to Ross, its features occasionally assume greater boldness, though more frequently their aspect is placid; but at the latter town, wholly emerging from its late state of apparent repose, it resumes the brightness and rapidity of its primitive character, as it forms the admired curve which the churchyard of Ross commands. The celebrated spire of Ross church, peeping over a noble row of elms, here fronts the ruined castle of Wilton, beneath the arches of whose bridge the Wye flows through a charming succession of meadows, encircling at last the lofty and well-wooded hill crowned with the magnificent ruins of Goodrich castle, and opposed by the waving eminences of the Forest of Dean. The mighty pile or peninsula of Symonds' Yat succeeds, round which the river flows in a circuit of seven miles, though the opposite points of the isthmus are only one mile asunder. Shortly afterwards, the Wye quits the county, and enters Monmouthshire at the New Weir. It forms a line of demarcation between Monmouthshire and Gloucestershire, and falls into the Severn below Chepstow. The total length of the Wye is about 130 miles, and the area of its basin 1400 square miles. Its course through Herefordshire is upwards of 40 miles in length. It is navigable for barges as far as Hereford. The principal fish taken in the Wye is the salmon, which is found in it at all times, but only in perfection between the months of December and August. Ross is "The Gate of the Wye", and for the beauty and variety of the scenery on its banks there is no river in England at all comparable with it; nor do we believe (notwithstanding the superiority of some of them in point of size) that there is a single river on the continent of Europe that can boast such scenes of grandeur, gracefulness, and pastoral beauty. Its romantic beauties, whether where it glides majestically along the rich plains of Herefordshire - through orchards, meadows, corn-fields, and villages - or, deep in its channel, runs . between lofty rocks, clothed with hanging woods, and crowned at intervals with antique ruins of castellated and monastic edifices, yielding a panoramic succession of exquisite landscapes, have furnished many subjects for the poet and the painter, and cannot fail to charm every lover of nature. The Lugg has its origin in Radnorshire, but enters Herefordshire on the N.W. side at Combe (or Cwm), and is immediately joined by the Endwell. In its course from this point to Leominster, it passes Aymestrey, near Mortimer's cross, and the pleasant village of Kingsland, thence, flowing in a S.E. direction, it receives the Pinsley, and afterwards inclining to the south, it receives the Arrow on the right bank. It flows by Ford, Bodenham, Marden, Moreton, Lugwardine, Hampton Bishop, and, uniting with the Froome, falls into the Wye at Mordiford. The principal deviation in the latter part of its course is the bend round Dinmore hill. The district of country through which this river flows is fine and fertile, but far less abundant in beautiful scenery than the Wye, though Drayton has characterised the Lugg "more lovelie". Like the Wye, however, it is subject to sudden overflows, and is frequently swelled by partial rains, which give it great rapidity and force at its junction with that river. These circumstances have operated to prevent its being rendered navigable, though two Acts of Parliament have been passed for that purpose. The Teme, which rises in Radnorshire, enters Herefordshire from the confines of Radnorshire and Shropshire, a short distance north-west from Brampton Brian, and, flowing eastward under the beautiful woods and castle at Downton, runs into Shropshire near Ludlow; thence, bending to the south, it again enters Herefordshire, but soon leaves it for Worcestershire, where, having made a considerable circuit, it once more flows on the borders of this county, of which it becomes the boundary for a mile or two above and below Whitbourne; after which it discharges . itself into the Severn about 2 miles from the city of Worcester. In the mussel-shells of this river, pearls have occasionally been found. There is some of the most beautiful, diversified, and romantic scenery in the county on its banks. This river is famous for grayling, trout, roach, &c., affording fine sport to the lovers of angling. The Arrow rises in the parish of Colya, Radnorshire, to the S.W. of Kington. Passing through that town, it flows in an easterly direction through Titley, Stanton, Pembridge, Eardisland, Monkland, Ivington, and Broadward, and joins the Lugg about 1 mile below Leominster. The Pinsley is a small stream which rises near Shobdon, flows through Kingsland and Cholstrey, and joins the Lugg at Leominster. The Monnow rises on the Herefordshire side of the Hatteral hills, or Black mountains, and flowing S.E. about 8 miles along the foot of the range, is joined near Longtown by the Eskley (or Escle) and Olchon rivulets on its left bank; and a little farther on it receives the Honddu on the right bank. Turning to the N.E., it flows parallel with the Abergavenny railway towards Pontrilas, where it receives the Dore, just after the latter river has been augmented by the waters of the Worm. Again turning to the south-east, it forms the boundary between Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, till it quits the county at Llanrothall, and flowing towards Monmouth, is received by the Wye, immediately below that town. This river is about 30 miles in length. The Dore, Doir, or Doyer, rises a short distance above Dorstone, and drains the "Golden Valley". It flows S.E. through or near the villages of Dorstone, Peterchurch, Vowchurch, Turnastone, Bacton, Abbey Dore, and Ewyas Harold, and joins the Monnow near Pontrilas. It is about 14 miles in length. The Worm brook rises at Allensmore, near Tram Inn station, and flows through St. Devereux and Wormbridge, and joins the Dore at Kenderchurch. Its course has recently been improved. The Eskley brook rises near Cusop hill, and runs by Michaelchurch-Eskley and Clodock to the Monnow. The Garron brook rises in Orcop, and flows through Llangarren and Marstow into the Wye near the Old Forge. In all these streams fish, especially trout, are very abundant. The Froome (or Frome) takes its rise in the parish of Thornbury in the N.E. of the county, being supplemented by a brook which rises in the parish of Wolferlow, and flows through Bromyard, Avenbury, Bishop's Froome, Canon Froome, Yarkhill, Weston-Beggard, and Bartestree, and unites with the Lugg above Mordiford. The Lodden also rises in the N.E. part of the county and runs by Much Cowarne, and joins the Froome near Yarkhill. The Leadon, or Ledden, rises a few miles above Bosbury, and running to the south, gives name to the town of Ledbury; thence, flowing into Gloucestershire, it unites with the Severn. The Herefordshire and Gloucestershire Canal is now the property of the Great Western Railway Company. It commences at Gloucester, where it communicates with the river Severn, passes Newent, in Gloucestershire, and Ledbury, in Herefordshire, terminating at Hereford, to which place it was opened for traffic in 1844. It is 34 miles long, and was constructed at the cost of £223,907. The principal traffic is with Staffordshire for coal, exporting timber for mining and pottery purposes, hay, &c. The traffic is now unimportant, owing to the facilities afforded by railway.

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY.- There is every reason to believe that the bishopric of Hereford is one of the very few which have existed, almost without interruption, from the first establishment of Christianity in this island to the present time. The learned Archbishop Usher observes that the see of Hereford was originally subject to the archbishopric of Caerleon, A.D. 544. It is also an historical fact that a Bishop of Hereford was one of the seven British prelates that attended the Synod summoned by St. Augustine, on the borders of the West Saxon kingdom, A.D. 601. In another Synod, held by Archbishop Theodore, A.D. 673, it was decreed that the Mercian dominions should be divided into several new dioceses. Putta, Bishop of Rochester, was shortly after translated to Hereford, circa 676. From the time that Putta occupied the episcopal chair, a regular series of bishops has been preserved at Hereford. But it was not until the murder of Ethelbert, King of the East Angles (probably at the instigation of Quendreda, Offa's queen), that the wealth and importance of this church became especially remarkable, A.D. 792. From Marden the remains of Ethelbert were removed to the church of St. Mary at Hereford by the conscience-stricken Offa, who, endowed the church with considerable estates, in the hope of expiating his crime. Multitudes resorted to the tomb of the Saxon prince, in consequence of a widespread belief that numerous miracles and cures were there effected; the wealth of this church was thus considerably augmented. Through the piety of Milfrid, a viceroy of King Edgar, the cathedral was magnificently rebuilt, A.D. 825. In consequence of decay, it was again rebuilt by Athelstan, the last Saxon bishop of this see, A.D. 1012 to 1055. Scarcely was this work completed, when the city and nearly the whole of the cathedral were reduced to ashes by Gryffyth, Prince of Wales, and the Welsh troops under him. Until the accession of Bishop Robert de Losinga, or Losing, A.D. 1079, the church remained in ruins, and the see was governed by the Bishop of Worcester. This bishop proceeded at once to rebuild the church on a scale far surpassing that of its former builders. The completion of this great work was reserved for his successor, Bishop Reynelm, who died A.D. 1115. During the 12th century the cathedral was a perfect Norman structure, a noble example of the skill and piety of the men of that period. This see (according to Dr. Peter Heylin, 1675) "hath afforded to the Church two saints, to the State two Chancellors and three Lord Treasurers, one Deputy to the realm of Ireland, two Chancellors to the University of Oxford, and one unto the Queens of England. It is valued in the King's Books, £768 10s. 6d."

The diocese of Hereford is in the province of Canterbury, and consists of the whole of the county of Hereford, the greater part of South Shropshire, twenty-one parishes in Worcestershire, seven in Montgomeryshire, four in Radnorshire, and one in Staffordshire.

There are two archdeaconries, viz., Hereford and Ludlow. The latter was formerly known as the archdeaconry of Salop, but by a recent Order in Council it is henceforth to be known as the archdeaconry of Ludlow. The Right Hon. and Ven. Lord Saye and Sele, D.C.L., is archdeacon of Hereford, and the Ven. William Waving, M.A., is archdeacon of Ludlow. The rural deaneries in the archdeaconry of Hereford are - Archenfield, Froome (North and South), Hereford, Leominster (two divisions), Ross, Weobley (three divisions), and Weston. The rural deaneries in the archdeaconry of Ludlow are - Burford (East and West), Clun, Ludlow, Pontesbury (two divisions), Stottesden (divided into Stottesden and Bridgnorth), and Wenlock (two divisions). The parishes of Aston, Brampton Brian, Burrington, Downton, and Leintwardine (all in Herefordshire), have been recently transferred from the deanery of Clun to that of Ludlow. (For list of the parishes in the several rural deaneries, see page 30.)

INHABITED HOUSES AND POPULATION IN 1871 OF THE DIOCESE.

 INHABITED HOUSES.POPULATION.
HEREFORD, entire county, except parts of the parishes of Colwall and Cradley in the ecclesiastical district of St. James Mathon, and part of the parish of Cwmyoy. 26,228124,722
GLOUCESTER, part of, viz., part of the parish of Ruardean, in the ecclesiastical district of All Saints Bishopswood. 418
MONTGOMERY, part of, viz. part of the Deaneries of Clun and Pontesbury. 1,0695,280
SALOP, part of, viz., the Deanery of Wenlock, parts of the Deaneries of Burford, Clun, Ludlow, Pontesbury, and Stottesden, and the parishes of Dinmore, Horderly Hall, Posenhall, and Woodhouse, formerly extra-parochial. 1825387,949
RADNOR, part of, viz., the parishes of Knighton, Michaelchurch-on-Arrow, Norton and New Radnor, and parts of the parishes of Brampton Brian, Old Radnor, and Presteigne. 1,2906,264
STAFFORD, part of, viz., part of the parish of Bobbington, and part of Enville in the ecclesiastical district of Tuck Hill. 88444
WORCESTER, part of, viz., the parishes of Abberley, Bayton, Clifton-upon-Teme, Eastham, Edvin Loach, Great Kyre, Lindridge, Mamble, Ribbesford, Rochford, Rock, Lower Sapey, Shelsley Walsh, Stanford-on-Teme, Stockton, and Tenbury, and parts of the parishes of Bockleton and Stoke Bliss. 2.75912,461
Totals49,691237,138

SUCCESSION OF THE BISHOPS OF HEREFORD.[7]

  1. 676. Putta, translated from Rochester.
  2. 688. Tyrhtel.
  3. 710. Torthere.
  4. 727. Wahlstod.
  5. 736. Cuthbert, translated to Canterbury.
  6. 741. Podda.
  7. 747. Hecca.
  8. 758. Ceadda.
  9. 777. Aldberht.
  10. 785. Esne.
  11. 788. Ceolmund.
  12. 793. Utel.
  13. 800. Wulfhard.
  14. 823. Beonna.
  15. 825. Eadulf.
  16. 837. Cuthwolf.
  17. 857. Mucel.
  18. 866. Deorlaf.
  19. 888. Cynemund.
  20. 901. Eadgar.
  21. 930. Tidhelm.
  22. 939. Wulfhelm.
  23. 941. Alfrike.
  24. 973. Athulf.
  25. 1012. Ethelstan, or Athelstan, died at Bosbury, buried in the Cathedral.
  26. 1056. Leofgar, presided only twelve weeks and four days, was slain by Griffin, King of Wales, at Glasbury. After his death, the see was void four years.
  27. 1061. Walter, buried in the Cathedral.
  28. 1079. Robert de Lozinga, of Lorraine, buried in the Cathedral, which he commenced rebuilding.
  29. 1096. Gerard, translated to York.
  30. 1167. Reinhelm, or Raynelm, buried in the Cathedral.
  31. 1115. Geoffrey de Cliva, buried in the Cathedral.
  32. 1121. Richard de Capella, died at Ledbury, buried in the Cathedral.
  33. Robert de Bethune, or Betune, buried in the Cathedral.
  34. 1148. Gilbert Ffolliott, translated to London.
  35. 1163. Robert de Melun, or of Maledon, buried in the Cathedral.
  36. 1174. Robert Ffolliott, buried in the Cathedral.
  37. 1186. William de Vere, buried in the Cathedral.
  38. 1200. Giles de Bruce, or Braose, died at Gloucester, buried in Hereford Cathedral.
  39. 1216. Hugh de Mapenore, Dean of Hereford, buried in the Cathedral.
  40. 1219. Hugh Ffolliott.
  41. 1234, Ralph of Maidstone, Dean of Hereford. He resigned his pastoral staff 1239, and became a Franciscan friar at Oxford. He subsequently entered a Monastery at Gloucester, where he died and was buried in 1295.
  42. 1240. Peter d'Acquablanca, buried in the Cathedral.
  43. 1369. John le Breton, buried in the Cathedral.
  44. 1275. Thomas de Cantilupe, died at Monte Fiascone, in Italy, and was buried in the Abbey of St. Severus, near Florence; but his bones were brought to England, and buried in his own Cathedral, and his heart was deposited in the Monastery of Asbridge, in Bucks.
  45. 1283. Richard de Swinfield, buried in the Cathedral.
  46. 1317. Adam de Orleton, translated to Worcester, and thence to Winchester.
  47. 1327. Thomas Charlton, buried in the Cathedral.
  48. 1344. John Trilleck, buried in the Cathedral.
  49. 1361. Lewis de Charlton, buried in the Cathedral.
  50. 1370. William Courtenay, translated to London, and thence to Canterbury.
  51. 1375. John Gilbert, Bishop of Bangor, translated to St. David's.
  52. 1389. John Trevenant, or Trefnant, buried in the Cathedral.
  53. 1404. Robert Mascall, buried in the Church of the White Friars, London, having willed to be buried in the cross aisle of the Friars Carmelites, at Ludlow.
  54. 1417. Edmund Lacy, translated to Exeter.
  55. 1420. Thomas Polton, translated to Chichester, and thence to Worcester, died at the Council of Basle, buried at Basle.
  56. 1422. Thomas Spofford, resigned. and ended his days in St. Mary's Abbey, York, where he had formerly been Abbot.
  57. 1449. Richard Beauchamp, translated to Salisbury.
  58. 1451. Reginald Boulers, translated to Lichfield.
  59. 1453. John Stanbury, the first Provost of Eton College, Bishop of Bangor, died at Ludlow, buried in the Cathedral.
  60. 1474. Thomas Milling, Abbot of Westminster, "the generous friend and patron of Caxton", buried in the Chapel of St. John the Baptist, in Westminster Abbey.
  61. 1492. Edmund Audley, Bishop of Rochester, translated to Salisbury.
  62. 1502. Hadrian de Castello, translated to Bath and Wells.
  63. 1504. Richard Mayew, or Mayo, the First President of Magdalene College, Oxford, buried in the Cathedral.
  64. 1516. Charles Booth, Pembroke College, Cambridge, buried in the Cathedral.
  65. 1535. Edward Fox, Provost of King's College, Cambridge.
  66. 1539. John Skip, Master of Caine College, Cambridge.
  67. 1553. John Harley, Magdalene College, Oxford.
  68. 1554. Robert Parfew, Purfey, or Wharton, Bishop of St. Asaph, buried in the Cathedral.
    Thomas Reynolds, nominated 1558, but not consecrated.
  69. 1559. John Scory, Bishop of. Chichester, and previously of Rochester, died at Whitbourne, in Herefordshire, and was buried there.
  70. 1586. Herbert Westfaying, Christ Church College, Oxford, buried in the Cathedral.
  71. 1603. Robert Bennett, Trinity College, Cambridge, buried in the Cathedral.
  72. 1617. Francis Godwin, Christ Church College, Oxford, Bishop of Llandaff.
    William Juxon, elected 1633, but removed to London before consecration.
    Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, elected, but refused the see.
  73. 1634. Augustine Lindsell, Clare College, Cambridge, Bishop of Peterborough, buried in the Cathedral.
  74. 1635. Matthew Wren, Master of St. Peter's College, Cambridge, translated to Norwich, and thence to Ely.
  75. 1635. Theophilus Field, Pembroke College, Cambridge, Bishop of St. David's, and previously of Llandaff, buried in the Cathedral.
  76. 1636. George Coke; or Cooke, Pembroke College, Cambridge, Bishop of Bristol, died at Quedgley, and was buried in Eardisley Parish Church. There is a cenotaph to this Bishop in the Cathedral.
  77. 1661. Nicolas Monk, Wadham College, Oxford, buried in St. Edmund's Chapel, Westminster Abbey.
  78. 1662. Herbert Croft, Dean of Hereford, buried in the Cathedral.
  79. 1691. Gilbert Ironside, Warden of Wadham College, Oxford, Bishop of Bristol.
  80. 1701. Humphrey Humphreys, Jesus College, Oxford, Bishop of Bangor, buried in the Cathedral.
  81. 1713. Philip Bisse, New College, Oxford, Bishop of St. David's, buried in the Cathedral.
  82. 1721. Benjamin Headley, St. Catherine's College, Cambridge, Bishop of Bangor, translated to Salisbury, and thence to Winchester.
  83. 1724. Hon. Henry Egerton, Christ Church College, Oxford.
  84. 1746. Lord James Beauclerk, Queen's College, Oxford, buried in the Cathedral.
  85. 1787. Hon. J. Harley, Christ Church College, Oxford, died before he came into residence.
  86. 1788. John Butler, Bishop of Oxford, buried in the Cathedral.
  87. 1803. Ffolliott Herbert Walker Cornewall, St. John's College, Cambridge, Bishop of Bristol, translated to Worcester.
  88. 1808. John Luxmoore, King's College; Cambridge; Bishop of Bristol, translated to St. Asaph.
  89. 1815. George Isaac Huntingford, New College, Oxford, Bishop of Gloucester.
  90. 1832. Hon. Edward Gray, Christ Church College, Oxford, Dean of Hereford, buried in the Cathedral.
  91. 1837. Thomas Musgrave, Trinity College, Cambridge, translated to York.
  92. 1848. Renn Dickson Hampden, Fellow of Oriel, Principal of St. Mary's Hall, Regius Professor of Divinity, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford.
  93. 1868. James Atlay, formerly Fellow and Tutor of St. John's College, Cambridge; Vicar of Leeds; Canon of Ripon; consecrated at Westminster Abbey, June 24th, 1868. His Lordship is Patron of 32 Benefices, the 2 Archdeaconries of Hereford and Ludlow, the 4 Canonries, the Precentorship, Chancellorship of the Church and Diocese, Treasurership, and the 28 Prebends in the Cathedral.

Arms of the See.- Before the time of Bishop Cantilupe, 1282, the Bishop of Hereford bore the arms of the kings of the East Angles - viz., "Azure three crowns, or, with a rose or roundele between them". Put from that time the arms of Cantilupe have been adopted for the see.- viz., Gules, three leopards' heads reversed, swallowing as many fleurs de lis, or.

By an order of the House of Lords, dated 22d June 1874, returns were obtained showing the number of churches, including cathedrals, in every diocese of England, which have been built or restored at a cost exceeding £500 since the year 1840. The following is a general summary of the return from the diocese of Hereford:-

THE CATHEDRAL£48,591
ARCHDEACONRY OF HEREFORD (245 churches), expended on 134 churches212,565
ARCHDEACONRY of LUDLOW (192 churches), expended on 81,183,965
 £445,121
ARCHDEACONRY OF HEREFORD:- 
From voluntary donations
£193,532
From parish rates
5,800
From church building societies
13,233
 £212,565
ARCHDEACONRY OF LUDLOW:- 
From voluntary donations
£171,857
From parish rates
5,705
From church building societies
6,403
 £183,965

Notes
[1] For parishes and places comprised therein see page 211.
[2] The Lieutenancy Sub-divisions are identical with the Petty Sessional Divisions; except that the Sub-divisions of Hereford and Leominster respectively include the boroughs of the same names.
[3] For list of Parishes in the several Hundreds, with Population, Area, &c., see page 39.
[4] For list of petty Sessional Divisions see page 40.
[5] For lint of Places in the County Court Districts see page 36.
[6] For list of Places in the Union Districts see page 32.
[7] It is difficult to ascertain the exact date of the succession of the early bishops, as what are considered the best authorities, such as Le Neve and Bishop Godwin, vary considerably. The valuable and learned work of the Rev. W. Stubbs, "Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum", has been principally followed in this list of the Bishops of Hereford.

OCR/Transcription by Rosemary Lockie in October 2012.

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