Sixteenth Century Bristol

By John Latimer

(Originally published under the title of
“THE CORPORATION OF BRISTOL IN THE OLDEN TIME”)

Transcriptions by Rosemary Lockie, © Copyright 2013

Chapter XII.

Temporary policy of consideration by Government towards Bristol - Meat market established; friction between the Corporation and Bristol butchers - Cost of travelling in Elizabethan days - The “Great House” and Red Lodge - Assessment of the citizens - City roads repaired by compulsory co-operation of householders - Same method applied to maintenance of trained bands.

The heavy exactions on the city in the shape of ship-money, and the refusal of the Somerset gentry to contribute their quota of the impost, appear to have temporarily shamed the Government into a more liberal policy. Instead of extorting funds for feeding and shipping off troops for Ireland, as had been previously the invariable custom, remittances were sent down with the soldiers in 1597, and confided to the Corporation; and on July 15th the Privy Council, in a letter to the Mayor, Wilham Yate, greatly commended that gentleman's arrangements for victualling and transporting 800 men a course of conduct, they added, that contrasted widely with the waste and private stealing that had been many times experienced at other ports. Such trust, so honourably discharged, continued the letter, moved the Council to think the Mayor meet to undertake further services, and he was therefore desired to buy up and transport victuals for the Irish army, which was clearly unable to find food in the devastated island. The customer of

MEAT MARKET ESTABLISHED.117

Bristol had been ordered to advance money for carrying out these directions, and the justices of the neighbouring counties, including South Wales, were required to render the Mayor assistance in obtaining supplies. The considerate policy of the Court was of short duration. The next mention in the civic records of the migration of troops is a minute of a meeting of the Common Council, specially convened to demand loans from the members for feeding and transporting the men dumped down upon the city authorities.

Down to this period the meat market of the city was held in the open streets, and the setting up of stalls in the narrow thoroughfares must have greatly impeded locomotion. In 1598 the executors of Robert Kitchin, in accordance with the powers conferred upon them by the Alderman's will, devoted a portion of his estate to the erection of a covered market in the rear of a house on the east side of Broad Street, and transferred the building to the Corporation, who undertook to distribute the rents derived from standings in charitable benefactions. It would appear that the butchers were by no means desirous of being removed from their usual positions, and the Common Council, finding it prudent to respect ancient customs, were content to deal with the country tradesmen who brought in meat on market days, the “foreigners” being ordered, in April, 1599, to sell exclusively in the “New Market”. Even this arrangement, however, was unsatisfactory to the resident purveyors, who speedily complained that their “stranger” rivals, instead of hastening to dispose of their goods and depart - as had been their previous habits - now compensated themselves for the tolls by loitering in their new quarters, to the great injury of local traders. Again bending to the free

118SIXTEENTH-CENTURY BRISTOL.

burgesses, the Council ordered, in the following June, that the countrymen should close their stalls at two o'clock in the winter months and an hour later in summer. The market was, nevertheless, still obnoxious to the Bristol butchers, and the civic rulers soon after appointed a committee to consider the desirability of closing the building altogether. The committee never produced a report, and there are indications that the selfishness of the complaining clique, who doubtless wished to establish a monopoly, brought about a corporate reaction. On December 4th, in consequence of an inordinate advance in the price of candles, the Council requested the Mayor and Aldermen to make an inquiry into the rates which the butchers were demanding for tallow, and to fix a reasonable price at which candles should be thenceforth sold. The butchers seem to have proved refractory, for the Common Council soon afterwards passed an Ordinance “to redress the excessive price of candles”, giving chandlers in the neighbouring country districts full liberty to bring in and sell any quantity of candles, notwithstanding the ordinary laws against “foreign” commodities.

A concluding reference may be made to the cost of travelling in Elizabethan days. In the summer of 1599, after a review of the city-trained bands, the Chamberlain made a journey to Wilton to present the Muster Roll to the Earl of Pembroke, Lord Lieutenant, and not finding his lordship at home, followed him to Court. The worthy official was fifteen days on his travels, but his inn expenses and those of his manservant, including keep for two horses, amounted only to 6s. 8d, per day. The hire of two horses cost £2, and the servants' wages were 8d. a day. When in London the Chamberlain took the opportunity to

THE “GREAT HOUSE” AND RED LODGE.119

present the Clerk of the Privy Council, “for intelligence”, with an Irish rug, purchased for £2. At this time a swarm of Government officials received small pensions from the Corporation, including the Clerk just referred to, the Clerk of the Crown, the Clerk of the Exchequer, and the Clerk of the Estreats - the last named condescending to accept 4s. 2d. a year, or about a penny per week.

The story of the spoliation of the Bristol Friaries by Henry VIII., narrated in the early part of this book, is recalled to memory by an incident at this period that might have furnished a new illustration to the celebrated Spelman when inditing his denunciation of sacrilege. The Carmelite Friary, which stood on the site of the present Colston Hall, together with a portion of its extensive gardens, was acquired for an insignificant sum by the Corporation, who soon afterwards sold the building and part of the ground to Alderman Thomas Chester. The large upper gardens, extending to what is now Park Row, fell into the ever-greedy hands of Sir Ralph Sadleir, by whom they were sold to a Bristol merchant named Rowland. Early in the reign of Elizabeth a gentleman named John Young, who had estates in Dorset and Wilts, determined to settle in this city, where several of his ancestors had been men of mark; and having taken up his residence in the above Friary, he resolved on constructing an imposing mansion on the site. In February, 1568, he accordingly purchased the old building from Alderman Chester, and proceeded so vigorously with the erection of his “Great House” that it served, in 1574, for the fitting reception of Queen Elizabeth and her numerous suite during her week's sojourn, during which its owner was knighted in reward for his hospitality. Sir John was not satisfied

120SIXTEENTH-CENTURY BRISTOL.

with this capacious residence. In 1578 he purchased from the Corporation the remaining part of their estate, consisting of a house and garden previously in the occupation of Nicholas Thorne, and he at the same time acquired Rowland's Lodge and garden on Stony Hill. On this latter spot he forthwith set about the construction of the large mansion now known as the Red Lodge, the beautiful internal decoration of which remains to attest his cultivated taste and ample means.

Sir John died in 1589, and it may be noted that at the usual inquest held by the Crown to discover the extent of his estates the jury declared on their oaths that the yearly value of the Great House was 40s., and that of the Red Lodge 20s. Their late owner left an only son, Robert, then 19 years of age. Within seven years of his attaining his majority, this young man appears to have dissipated most of his fortune, and to have been over head and ears in debt; and on March 29th, 1599, being about to adventure as a soldier in Ireland, and desirous of protecting his Bristol estate from seizure by creditors, he conveyed both the mansions to his half-brother, Nicholas Strangeways, their mother's right to reside in the Great House for life being reserved. Strangeways probably disposed of the Red Lodge, but nothing more is recorded about it in the Great Red Book at the Council House. The prodigal returned from Ireland, where he obtained the title of knight, but was probably poorer than ever. Soon afterwards, in conjunction with Strangeways, he sold the Great House for £660 to Sir Hugh Smyth, of Long Ashton, and then vanished from history, nothing being known of his ultimate fate. The Great House subsequently became the residence and factory of two notable sugar refiners - John Knight, followed by Richard

ASSESSMENT OF THE CITIZENS.121

Lane, both of whom were Mayors of Bristol. The widow of Lane conveyed the mansion, in 1708, for £1,300, to Edward Colston, who there established his great school.

Parliament having voted the Queen a subsidy in 1599, a meeting of the Common Council was held in January, 1600, to assess the members of that body preliminary to the collection of the impost. The proceedings, though outwardly grave, were really of a farcical character. A subsidy in boroughs was a tax of 2s. 8d. in the pound on the value of each citizen's personal property, and in the Middle Ages it was doubtless an onerous burden. But as each community was assessed by Royal Commissioners selected out of resident inhabitants, the gentlemen chosen - with a tender respect for the pockets both of themselves and their neighbours - gradually reduced the charge by underestimating the value of the goods assessed, and the results eventually assumed ludicrous proportions. Thus on the above occasion, although several members of the Council were merchants of great wealth, with extensive stocks of merchandise, the maximum value of the property of any of them was alleged to be £20, and only fourteen were stated to be worth that amount, their less notable colleagues escaping with an assessment of £10. The charge imposed on the general mercantile and trading class is not recorded, but was doubtless framed on a similar basis. It may be fairly assumed that on the average the assessment did not represent so much as one-twentieth of the actual property of the taxpayers.

Having made this assessment, the Common Council proceeded to make use of it for other purposes. The roads leading into the city were generally in an execrable

122SIXTEENTH-CENTURY BRISTOL.

condition, and in 1600 were so abominably bad as to force the Corporation to take action. On April 22nd it was accordingly resolved that every inhabitant “scassed” (assessed) in the subsidy book should pay after the rate of fourpence for every pound so scassed, and that this money should be employed in the reparation of the highways within the city liberties. It was further ordered that every householder free from the subsidy tax should work one day in the mending of the roads for the space of eight hours, bringing his own pickaxe and shovel at such time as he should be warned. Any person refusing to pay or to work was to incur a double penalty. This system of compulsory co-operation was in August applied towards maintaining the trained bands, wealthy citizens being required to pay the wages of one or more of the troopers summoned to the yearly muster, and to furnish each of such men with a coat, the penalty for disobeying the latter order being 20s. per man. Members of the Common Council were further required to provide arms and armour for the soldiers, and fifty corslets, forty-five guns, a few pikes, and twenty targets were forthwith brought in. The Corporation being in need of money, it was next resolved to raise £500 by loans for four years, the interest on which (probably eight or ten per cent.) was ordered to be defrayed by the members of the Council, who were to be taxed upon the basis of the subsidy book. Finally the old law was revived whereby a citizen was forbidden to sue a fellow burgess in any court save those of the mayor and sheriffs. A person who had presumed to raise an action of this kind in one of the courts at Westminster was fined £10, and on refusing to pay the penalty was “discommoned”, and dealt with as a “foreigner”.

AN INTERESTING EXTRACT.123

A final extract, brief but interesting, may be made from the Chamberlain's accounts:-

1599, July. Paid for the sight of the model of Bristol, seen by Mr, Mayor and Aldermen, 5s.

What would the dignitaries of the twentieth century give to behold this remarkable picture of Bristol in the olden time?

INDEX

Account Books of Corporation (quoted), 1, 7, 8, 10, 16, 19, 21, 48, 49, 54, 56, 57, 62, 64, 66, 69, 70, 71, 75-77, 84, 87, 99, 114, 123.

Adams' Chronicle, 107, 108.

Addercliff, 80.

Admiral, Lord High, 92, 96, 102.

Admiralty Court, Judge of, 93; at Portishead, 49; trial of Capt. James in, 89.

Admiralty privileges of Corporation, 47, 48, 102, 112.

Adventure (ship), 101.

Aid (ship), 92.

Aldermen, Number of increased, 76.

Aldworth, Simon, 82.

Ale Conner, 28.

All Saints' Church, 5, 22; Ward, Assessment of, 60.

Almshouses, Foster's, 33.

America, Discovery of, 41.

Annals of Bristol, 84, 106.

Anne Boleyn and Corporation, 31, 32.

Archery, Practice of, 7.

Area of Bristol in sixteenth century, 2.

Armada, Spanish, 91, 92.

Arthur, Rev. A., 91.

Assessment of citizens, 60, 104, 121.

Ashton Court, 77.

Athelney Abbey, 15.

Attorney-General, 77.

Audit Books of Corporation, 21, 36, 102.

Augustinian Friars, 2.

Avon (river), 63, 64, 73, 103, 110.

Bailiffs' drinking, 10.

Baldwin Street, 82.

Baptist Mills, 105.

Bath, 47, 53, 54.

Bayonne, 100, 101.

Bear-baiting, 8.

Bearkecpers, Companies of, 8.

Bedminster, Manor of, 16.

Bell Lane, 29.

Benefit of Clergy, 63, 64.

Berkeley, 45; Lord 47.

Bewdley, 52.

“Bill for Bristowe”, A, 57.

Bird, William, 30, 31.

Birmingham, 31.

Bishopric of Bristol, 53, 62, 84, 98, 103.

Black death, Ravages of, 2.

Black Friars, 2.

Blande, Mrs., 54.

Boiling Well, 62.

Boundaries, Perambulation of, 79.

Bow, Carr's works at, 82.

Bowles, H. B., 72.

Boy Bishop, Ceremony of, 9.

Brandon Hill, Acquisition of summit of by Corporation, 59.

Brest, 101.

Brewers, Bristol, 28.

Brislington,Chapelof St. Anne, 5, Bristol, Area of, in sixteenth century, 2; arms of, 49-52; population of, in sixteenth century, 24, 25; inquiry at by Royal Commission, 4; receives title of “city”, 77; model of, 123, Bristol Bridge, 6, 16, 21, 22, 28, 29.

Bristol Fair, 113.

Bristol farthings, 67-72.

Bristolians, Religious faith of, 1; large bequests of, 3, 105.

Bristol measures, 48.

Broadmead, 2.

Broad Street, 117.

Broke, Davy (Recorder), 19.

Bromefield, 32.

Browne, Alderman, 87.

Buccaneering, engaged in by Bristolians, 100.

Buckingham, Duke of, 32.

Bull-baiting, 8.

Burghley, Lord, 56, 88, 95, 114.

Butchers, Bristol, 40, 117, 118.

Butts, in the Marsh, 7.

Cable, Robert, 57.

Cabot, John, 41.

Cadiz, Sack of, Bristol represented at, 110.

Caesar, Dr. Julius, 102.

Candles, Regulations as to price, 118.

Canterbury, Archbishop of, 87.

Canterbury, Treasure at, 14 Canynges, William, 4.

Cardiff, 109.

Carmelite Church, 66; Friars, 2, 15; Friary, 119.

Carr, John, 81-84, 85, 86; William, 82.

Castle, Bristol, 2.

Cathedral, Bristol, 22, 65, 99.

Catholicism, Roman, in Bristol, 1, 2.

Cattaie, 65.

Cattle market licence, 53.

Cecil, William, 95.

Celebrations for twentieth year of Elizabeth's reign, 65.

Census of Bristol, 25.

Chamberlain, City, 11, 28, 33-35, 37, 38, 44, 46, 49, 51-53, 56, 63. 69-71, 74, 75, 84, 87, 88, 98, 99, 103, 113, 114, 118, 123.

Chancellor, Lord, 21, 34, 44, 61, 86.

Chandos, Lord, 37, 52.

Chantries, seized for Crown, 3, 4, 14; attendance at, 5; spoliation of, 20; census of, 24, 25.

Chantry commissioners, 24.

Chantry, Hallewey's, 5.

Chard, Assizes held at, 48.

Charity trustees, 33.

Charters of the city confirmed, 37; granting crest, 50; increasing aldermen, 76.

Chester, Alderman Thomas, 119.

Chew Magna, 33.

Christchurch, Vestry of, 58.

Christmas drinkings, 10, 12.

Christmas holidays, 10.

Christmas Steps (Knifesmiths' Street), 39, 42.

Christmas Street, 61, 66.

Christ's hospital, 82, 83.

Churches, Spoliation of, 14; financial aid to Corporation, 62.

Church plate, 16, 22.

Churchyard, 61.

“City preachers”, 104.

Clarencieux, King-of-Arms, 49-52 Clergy in Bristol in sixteenth century, 4; poverty of, 103.

Clerk of the Crown, 48.

Clevedon, 49.

Coach travelling, Introduction of, 47.

Coal in Bristol, 55. 96.

Coat of Arms, Bristol, 49-52.

Coinage in Bristol {see Bristol farthings).

Cole, Alice, 86; John, 69; Richard, 57, 85-87; Thomas, 85, 86.

Coleman, John, 48.

College Green, 25, 80.

Cologne, Chapel of the Three Kings of, 20.

Colston, Edward, 121; Thomas, 57, 86; William, 94.

Colston Hall, 15, 119.

Compton, Mrs., 21; Sir Thomas, 21.

Commerce of Bristol, 88, 99, 100, 109, 110.

Commons, House of, 57.

Common Seal, 49.

Congresbury Manor, 82.

Constables, Parish, 27.

Cooke, Robert, 50.

Cordwainers, Guild of, 5.

Corn, Dealings in, of Corporation, 35, 107.

Corporate jurisdiction, Institutions free from, 2.

Corporation account books (quoted), 1, 7, 8, 10, 11, 16, 19, 21, 48, 49, 54, 56, 57, 62, 64, 66, 69, 70, 71, 75, 76, 77.

84, 87, 99, 114, 123.

Corporation, Admiralty privileges of, 47, 48, 102, 112; attendance at obits, 5; at Cathedral, 103; almshouse trustees, 20, 21; Brandon Hill summit, 59; Carmelite Friary, 119; celebrations for twentieth year of Elizabeth's reign, 65; Bristol clergy, 104; claims on by Lord Chancellor, 61; Thos.

Corporation - continued.

Cromwell appointed Recorder, 19; corn doles, 35; Custom House at Gloucester, 44-46; visit of Elizabeth, 59-61; entertainment in Weavers' Hall, 7; Earl of Essex, 114; estates of, 15; expenditure of, 11, 33; Bristol farthings, 67-72; feudal claims of Lord de la Warre and Lord Stafford, 30, 31, 85, 86; fishing in Froom, 8; Bristol Grammar School, 41, 43; royal grant to, 16; markets, 53, 58, 117; treatment of mendicants, 27; noisy meetings of, 57; Merchant Venturers' Society, 56, 57; Duke of Norfolk, 47; ordinances of, 10, 25, 28, 32, 77, 111, 114, 117; city orphans, 96; pecuniary difficulties of, 15; presentation to Popham, 78; purchases from Crown, 15; general procession, 3; Queen Elizabeth's Hospital, 83; reactionary measures of, 111; trouble with Redcliff, 17; relief measures of, 80, 107-109; repair of roads, 122; revenue of, 16, 18; treatment of Sheriffs, 12, 13; ship-money, 109; quartering of soldiery in Bristol, 74, 113; Duke of Somerset, 20; St. Mark's Church, 98, 99; St. Mary's Chapel, 21; Temple Fee, 106; tolls of city, 15; Alderman Whitson, 107.

Corpus Christi, Feast of, 5.

Correction, House of, 87.

Cotham, Execution at, 10.

Cotton, Sir Robert, 72.

Council House, 16, 26, 29, 31, 44, 55. 114.

Crest, Bristol, 49-52.

Crickland, Thomas, 51.

Crime, Suppression of, 27.

Croft, Sir James, 88.

Cromwell, Thomas, 18, 19.

Crown, Clerk of the, 119.

Curfew, Proclamation as to, 10.

Currency, Restoration of, 38.

Custom House, Establishment of, at Gloucester, 44-46.

Customs duties, Bristol, 53.

Customs officers, 63.

Dale, William (Sheriff), 12, 13.

Dantzic, Corn imported from.

80; outrage on vessel of, 112; rye, bought by Whitson, 107.

Dean and Chapter of Cathedral, 60.

Dean, Forest of, 88.

Defender of the Faith (Henry VIII.), 2.

De la Warre, Lord, 30, 31, 42.

Deputy-Lieutenant of the City, Mayor appointed, 81.

Desmond, Earl of, 75.

Dinnye, John, 82.

Distress in Bristol, 62.

Doles to Bristol poor, 105.

Dolphin Street, 2.

Drake, Francis, 91, 99.

“Drinkings” of Corporate officials, 10; of Abbot of St.

Augustine, 10.

Ducking stool, 39.

Dudley, Edmund, Viscount Leslie, 18; John, Duke of Northumberland, 18.

Dues, Abolition of, 15.

Dunkirk, 94.

Durham, 14.

Dutch, Animosity of, 93.

Edward I. and boy bishop, 9; Edward III., 51; Edward VI., 106.

Elizabeth, 21, 35, 37-40, 45, 47, 51, 52, 59, 65, 66, 67, 74, 88, 91-93, 114, 119; visit of , to Bristol, 59-61; confers new Charter, 76, 77; revives ship-money, 109.

Esquimaux in Bristol, 65.

Essex, Lord, 19; Earl of, 114, 115.

Estates, Local, value of, 4.

Estreats, Clerk of the, 119.

Evenet, Edward, 69, 70.

Exchequer, Clerk of the, 119.

Executions, Public, 9, 64.

Expenditure of Corporation, 11, 74.

Fair, St. James's, Income from, 13; extent of business, 113.

Famine in Bristol, 79, 80, 107, 113.

Farthings, Bristol, 67-72.

Feast of Corpus Christi, 5; St.

Nicholas, 9.

Fee-farm of Bristol, paid by Sheriff, 12.

Feudal claims by Lord de la Warre, 30, 31; by Lord Stafford, 85, 86.

Fish traffic, 99.

Fishing in the Froom, 8.

Fishing rights of Mayor, 103.

Fitzroy, Robert, Earl of Gloucester, 16.

Fleet prison, 90.

Fletcher, Richard, Bishop of Bristol, 84, 98.

Flour Market, 58.

Flushing, 94.

“Foreigners”, Ordinances against, 77, 111, 114, 117.

Forest of Dean, 88.

“Forlorn Hope” Estate, 105, 106.

Foster's Almshouses, 33.

French, Evrard le, Chantry of, 4.

Friars, Orders of, 2, 15; doles to, 12.

Friaries, Spoliation of, 3, 14, 15, 16, 19, 119.

Friary buildings, converted into quarries, 16, 66.

Frobisher, Martin, 65.

Frog Lane, 25.

Froom (river), 2, 39, 64, 96.

Froom Gate, 43, 60; lantern at, 26.

Fry & Sons, J.S., 66.

Fuel in Bristol, 96 Gallwey, Christopher, 70.

Gaol delivery, 61; profits of, 13.

Gatcombe, 46.

Gaunt's Hospital, 2, 15, 19, 83, 84; monks of, 98; tombs of, 99.

Gibbet on Canon's Marsh, 64.

Gilton, killed in smuggling exploit, 88, 89.

Glamorgan, Transport of grain from, 113.

Gloucester, Earl of, 16, 59; population of, 25; seizure of corn by, 36; Custom House at, 44-46; measures, 48; bishopric of, 62, 98; ship-money contribution, 109; Goderich, John, 42, 43.

Grammar school, 33, 41-44, 61.

“Great House”, 61, 66, 119-121.

Great Red Book (quoted), 31, 120.

Great Unicorn (ship), 92.

Grey, Edward, Viscount Lisle, 18; John, 18; Elizabeth, 18.

Grey Friars, 2, 15.

Guard house passage, 58.

Guildhall, 26, 64; armaments stored in, 38; renovated, 47; chapel of St. George in.

20.

Guilds, Procession of, 6.

Gwylliams, Abbot of St.

Augustine's, 19.

Hallewey's chantry, 5.

Halton, Robert, 51.

Hamp, Manor of, 15.

Handmaid (ship), 92.

Hannam (Recorder), 67, 68.

Harrington, Lord, 72.

Harris, David, 51.

Hart, Thomas, 28.

Hatton, Lord Keeper, 95.

Haviland, Mr., 114.

Henry VII., 28. 41; Henry VIII., 1, 2, 8, 17, 30, 32, 33, 43, 119.

Heralds' College, 49.

Herbert, Sir William, 34.

Hertford, Earl of, 20.

High cross, 60, 61, 66, 84; desecrated, 114; proclamation at, 15; lantern at, 26.

High Street, 74.

Hipsley, John, 51.

Holland, State of, 94.

Hopkins, John, 110.

Hops, Use of, in Bristol, 27, 28.

Howard, Lord, 92.

Hungroad, 73, 80, 107.

Hunsdon Lord, 115.

Hutton, David, 31, 32.

Ireland, Shortage of corn in, 46.

Irish Rebellion, Embarkation of troops for, 73, 113, 116, 117.

James I., 72.

James, Thomas, 89, 90, 101.

Jews, Bristol, 29.

Jones, John, 57; Roger, 51.

Jonson, Ben, 95.

Julius Caesar, Dr., 102.

Justice, Lord Chief, 35.

“Killingworth”, 52.

Kingroad, 48, 88, 89.

Kingswood forest, 55.

Kitchin, Alderman Robert, 53, 81, 108, 117.

Knapp's chantry, 4, 20.

Knight, John, 120.

Knight of Rodys (Rhodes) visit to Bristol. 17.

Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 106.

Lacie, John, 56.

Lafford's (Lawford's) Gate, 8, 60.

Lane, Richard, 121.

Langley, Philip, 45, 57, 102.

Lawe, William, 51.

Lawrence Hill, 7.

Lawrence Tide, Competition at, 7.

Lawsuit of Corporation, 48.

Leicester, Earl of, Lord High Steward, 52; visit to Bristol, 53; petition presented by, 63; cool procedure of, 87, 88; death of, 95.

Lent, Restrictions concerning eating of meat in, 40.

Lewin's Mead, Trees in, 96.

Lighting of streets, 25.

Limekiln Road, 25.

Lion (ship), 73.

Lisbon, 112.

Lisle, Viscount, Estates of, 18; players of, 8.

Littlecote, 78.

“Little Ease” den in Newgate, 40.

Loans raised by Corporation, 122.

London, 16, 41, 44, 47, 49. S7. 88, 92, 109, no; goldsmiths, 58.

Long Ashton, 120.

Lord Chancellor, 21, 34, 44, 61.

86.

Lord Chief Justice, 35.

Lord High Steward, Office of, 20, 81; appointments to, 20, 37. 52. 95, 114, 115.

Lords, House of, 57.

Lord Privy Seal, 19, 21.

Love, John, 101.

Ludlow, Deputation sent to, 34.

Luther attacked by Hen. VIII., 2.

Marches, Welsh, 34, 35.

Markets, Bristol, 58, 117, 118.

Marsh, (Queen Square), 6; wrestling and archery in, 7; shooting butts in, 47; pavilion erected in, 81.

Marsh Gate, 39.

Martyrdom in Bristol, 36.

Mary (Queen), 36; Queen of Scots, 47, 84, 87.

Mary-le-port Ward, Assessment of, 60.

Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 100.

Master of mendicants, 26.

Mayor, 9, 25, 31, 34, 35, 38, 41, 49, 51, 54, 60-62, 68-70, 79, 81, 83, 85, 89, 90, 96, 101, 103, 107, 109, 112, 116, 121; attendance at chantries, 5; wages of, 5; entertained in Weavers' Hall, 7; fishing rights of, 8, 103; Christmas drinking of, 10; “pension” of, 12, 13; letter from Privy Council, 68; appointed Deputy-Lieutenant of the City, 81; claimed as “villein appurtenant” by Lord Stafford, 85; governor of orphans, 97; rebuked by Privy Council, 112; refusal of office of, 86, 102; chapel, 16; court, 27.

Mayor's Kalendar (quoted), 7.

9, 48, 108.

Meal market, 58.

Meat market, 117, 118.

Mediterranean trade, 58.

Members of Parliament, 16, 41, 43, 45, 78, 82, 89, 102; Wages of, 12, 46.

Mendicants, 26.

Merchant seamen's almshouses founded, 106, 107.

Merchant Venturers' chapel suppressed, 20.

Merchant Venturers' Society, 20, 56, 57. 106, 107.

Midsummer eve, “Setting of the Watch”, 6, 26, 27.

Military enthusiasm in Bristol, 80.

Minion (ship), 92, 112.

Mint, Bristol, 4, 22.

Miracle plays, Performance of, 6.

Monastic estates. Revenue of, 16.

Monmouth, Transport of grain from, 113.

Monopoly of Merchant Venturers, 56, 57; Bristol merchants, 88.

“Myngo” (play), 64.

Newcastle, Boy Bishop at, 9; contributions to Armada, 91, 92; thorough toll, 13; measures, 48.

Newfoundland, Discovery of 41; voyages to, 107.

Newgate, 10, 40, 59, 60, 61.

“New Market”, 117.

Nichols's Progresses, 61.

Norfolk, Duke of, in Bristol, 47.

North-West Passage, Attempt to find, 65.

Nunnery of St. Mary Magdalene, 2.

Obits, 3, 4, 5, 36.

Ordinances of Corporation, 10, 25, 28, 32, 77, 111, 114, 117.

Ore, brought home by Frobisher, 65.

Orphans, Treatment of 96; court, 108.

Owen, George, 33.

Oxford, Earl of. Players of, 36.

Pageants, Religious and secular, 5.

Panic in Bristol, 87.

Paris, Octroi at, 5.

Parishes, Contribution of, to Corporation, 15.

Park Row, 119.

Parliament, Clerk of the, 95.

Parliament, Members of, 41, 43, 45, 46, 78, 82, 89, 102; wages of, 12, 46.

Parliamentary contest, 56.

Partridge, Royal commissioner, 4.

Paving of streets, 75.

Pembroke, Earl of, 37, 52, 80, 81, 118.

Penny, Silver, paid to working classes, 5; value of Elizabeth's, 67.

Pepwell, William, 51.

Peterborough, Dean of, 84.

Philip II. of Spain, 74, 80, 93, 110.

Pill, 63.

Pillory, 40.

Pinchin, Thomas, 98.

Piratical exploits, 63, 81, 100, 101, 112.

Plague, Ravages of, 2, 62.

Playactors, Companies of, 7, 8, 36. 64, 65, 93.

Plotneys (in Kingroad), 48.

Police arrangements, 25, 27.

Popham, John, 78, 90, 111.

Population of Bristol in sixteenth century, 24, 25.

Porpoise caught near Temple Back, 103.

Portbury, Manor of, 48.

Portishead, Admiralty Court at, 49.

Portishead Point, 48.

Postal arrangements, 76.

“Preachers” maintained by Corporation, 104.

Prior of St. John, 17.

Privy Council, 40, 45, 67, 68, 70, 90, 92, 94, 96, 97, 100, 101, 103, 104, 108, 109, 111, 116; minutes of, 84, 85, 106, 112, 113; clerk of, 119.

Procession of trade companies, 6.

Protestants, Burning of, 36.

Public holidays. Number of, 3, Public scavengers, 26.

Puritanism, 40, 65, 103.

Pykes, John, 35; Mrs. Ann, 44.

Quarries, Friary buildings converted into, 16.

Quay Street, 29.

Quays, Repair of, 66.

Queen Elizabeth's Hospital, 82, 84, 86, 96, 99.

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 100.

Rate levied by Corporation, 45, 110.

Recorder (of Bristol), 12, 13, 45, 51, 52, 56, 60, 61, 67, 68, 76, 77; (of London) 45.

Red Book, Great, 120.

Redcliff, 16, 17; Church, 92; Church style, 76; Gate, 2; Hill, 76; Parade, 80; Ward, 60.

Rede, William, 59.

“Redemptioner” Ordinances, 111.

Red Lodge, 15, 120.

Relief measures of Corporation, 80, 107-109.

Religious Houses, 2.

Revenue of Corporation, 16, 18.

Richmond, Duke of. Players of, 8.

Robert, Earl of, 59.

Rodys, Knight of, 17.

Rowland, Mr., 119, 120.

Rye, Bought by Corporation, 107 Sadleir, Sir Ralph, 119.

St. Anne in the Wood, Chapel of, 5.

St. Augustine's Abbey, 2; Back, 2, 61.

St. Augustine the Less, 25.

St. Bartholomew's Day, Massacre of, 100.

St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 2, 42, 43.

St. Catherine's Eve, 6; Chapel, 20.

St. Clement's Chapel, 20, 106.

St. Ewen's Ward, 60.

St. George's Chapel, 12, 20, 47.

St. James, Parish of, 105.

St. James's Fair, 13.

St. James's Priory, 2, 59.

St. John, Chapel of, 4, 20.

St. John's Church, 66; Hospital, 2, 31-33.

St. John of Jerusalem, Knight of, 16.

St. John, Priory of, 17.

St. Katherine's players, 7.

St. Lawrence Church, 66.

St. Lawrence Hospital, 60.

St. Leonard's, Spoliation of, 22.

St. Mark's Church, 98.

St. Mary-le-port, Parish of, 91.

St. Mary's Chapel, 21, 22.

St. Mary Magdalene, Nunnery of, 2, 15.

St. Mary Redcliff Church, 47.

St. Michael's Hill, 10, 15.

St. Nicholas' Church, 9, 22, 104, 105; clock, 12.

St. Nicholas, Feast of, 9.

St. Peter's Day, 6, 27.

St. Thomas's Street, 53.

Salaries of Corporate officials, 12.

Salisbury, Earl of, 95.

Sanitary arrangements of the city, 25, 26.

Savage (foot post), 76.

“Savages” (Esquimaux) in Bristol, 65.

Saxie, Mr., 57.

Sayer, Robert, 51.

Scavenger, Public, 26.

Scots, Mary Queen of, 47, 84, 87.

Sergeants, Civic, Attendance at chantries, 5.

Setting of the watch, 6.

Severn (river), 45, 108.

Seymour, Edward (Duke of Somerset), 20.

Sharington, Sir W., 4, 23.

Sheriffs, 9, 51, 89, 90; attendance at chantries, 5; drinking of, 10; financial duties of, 11-13; and abolition of dues, 15; court of, 27.

Ship-money, 92, 109, 110, 116.

Ships sent against Armada, 92, 93.

Shirehampton, 107.

Shooting in Marsh, 38, 47.

Shrewsbury, 45, 109.

Silk, Thomas, 28.

Silver penny, paid to working classes, 5.

Skin trade, Monopoly of, 88.

Small Street, 53, 114.

Smuggling, 88, 89.

Smyth family, 85.

Smyth, Sir Hugh, 120.

Smythes, Mr., 69.

Snyg, Mr., 57.

Soap-making, 82.

Soldiery quartered in Bristol, 73, 74, 113, 116, 117.

Solicitor-General, 35.

Somerset Assizes, 48.

Somerset, Duke of, 20, 34.

Somerset, Ship-money contribution, 109, 110.

Southampton, Admiralty privileges of, 112.

South Wales, 88.

Spain, 42.

Spanish Armada, 91, 92; Inquisition, 99; trade with Bristol, 109.

Speaker of House of Commons a Bristolian, 78.

Spelman, 119.

Spencer's Obit, 4, 36.

Sports, Out-door, 6, 7.

Stafford, Lord, Feudal claims of, 85, 86, Standbanck, Anthony, 84.

Star Chamber, Court of, 36.

Start Point, 63.

“Statutes at large”, 57.

Steep Street, 39.

Steward, Lord High, Office of, 20, 81; appointments, 20, 37, 52, 95. 114. 115.

Stewart dynasty, 57.

Stocks, 39.

Stone, John, 51.

Stony Hill, 120.

Strangeways, Nicholas, 120.

Streets, Care of, 6.

Street paving, 75.

“Street pitchers” appointed, 75.

Style, Redcliff Church, 76, Suffolk, Duke of, 8.

Sword bearer. Attendance at chantries, 5.

Tailors' Chapel, 25.

Talbot, John (Viscount Lisle) 18; Thomas (Viscount Lisle) 18; Joan, 18; Elizabeth, 18.

Tallow, Price of, 118.

Taunton measures, 48.

Taylor, Robert, 57.

Templars, Order of, 16.

Temple Back, Capture of porpoise at, 103.

Temple Church, Advowson of, 17; tower of, 47.

Temple Combe, Preceptors of.

16, 17.

Temple Fee, 3, 16, 17, 106; Gate, 2; Street, 2, 17.

Tewkesbury ship money contribution, 109; Abbey, 59.

Thatch roofing, 28.

Thornbury Castle, 32.

Thorne, Nicholas and Robert, 41-44, 120.

Thorough toll, Newcastle, 13.

Thunderbolt Street, 39.

Tilbury, Army at, 93.

Tintern, 89.

Tolls and dues, Abolition of, 13, 15.

Tolzey, 8, 29, 47, 75, 96, 99.

Tombstones used for repairing quays, 66.

Tower Hill, 114; Lane, 39.

Town attorney, 12; clerk, 5, 9, 12, 53, 59, 86; steward, 12.

Town gates. Salaries of porters of, 12.

Trade of Bristol, 88, 99, 100, 109, 110.

Trade companies, Processions of, 6.

Trained bands, 37, 49, 80, 81, 92, 118, 122.

Transport to Ireland, Cost of, 113.

Travelling, Cost of, 33, 118.

Treasurer, City, 6, 1 1; Lord, 34, 145.

Trinity Ward, 60.

Turnstiles, 39.

Unyt, Giles, 49.

Uphill, 100.

Walker, of Brandon Hill, 58.

Wall, Thomas, 71.

Walsh, Sergeant, 45.

Walsingham, Secretary, 76, 77.

Warwick, Earl of, 53.

Watch-night festivals, 38.

Water supply, Impurity of, 62.

Weavers' guild, 5, 7; hall, 7; chapel, 20.

Webb, Thomas, 112; John, 113.

Wellington, 61.

Welsh Back, Chapel of St. John on, 4.

Welsh Marches, Lord President of, 33. 34.

Westminster, 46.

Westmorland, Lord, 8.

White, Thomas, 28.

Whitson, Edward, 88; Christopher, 90; John, 107, 108.

Whitsuntide pageants, 5.

Wick St. Lawrence, Manor of, 82.

“Will Dayrell”, 78.

Willimot, Richard. 51.

Wilson, Dr., 76.

Wilton, 118.

Wine Street, 58.

Wolsey, Cardinal, 12, 13, 18.

Woodspring Priory, 83.

Wool market licence, 53.

Worcester, William of, 5.

Worcester, 45, 109; bishopric of, 98; Earl of, 47.

Working classes, attendance at chantries, 5.

Wreck at Portishead, 48; in Avon, 73.

Wrestling in the Marsh, 7.

Yate, William, 58, 116.

“Yeoman of the bottles”, 61.

Yonge, William, 51.

Young, John (Sir), 61, 66, 119, 120; William, 87; Robert, 120.

York, 14.

Zealander cargo ship seized by Colston, 94.

J.W. Arrowsmith, Printer, Quay Street, Bristol.

OCR/transcript by Rosemary Lockie in October 2013.

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