Bradwell: Ancient and Modern

A History of the Parish and of Incidents in the Hope Valley.

By Seth Evans (1912)

Transcriptions by Rosemary Lockie, © Copyright 2013

Chapter V.

SOME OLD CHARTERS FOR FIVE HUNDRED YEARS.

LANDOWNERS AND INHABITANTS IN THE MIDDLE AGES AND AFTER.

Here are a number of charters showing grants and conveyances of properties and curious tenures, dating back more than 600 years.

In the 15th year of the reign of Edward I. (1287), William de Bradwall was on the jury at an inquisition, and Clement de-la-Ford was a contemporary.

On May 6th, 1298, a grant was made from Robert, son of Ellis de Bradewall, and Alice his wife, to Thomas Foljaumbe, of Teddeswell, of a yearly rent of 12d. secured upon their lands in Schatton.

On March 25th, 1305, William, son of Willhelmini Blaunchard, of Castiltone, made a grant to Peter de Shattone, forester, of a rent of 2s., with a day's reaping in autumn, price 2d., from a tenement in Burgh. Witnesses, Clement de la Ford, Ballious de Pecco, William Hally, Robert le Eyr, etc.

On August 24th, 1405, power of attorney was given by Richard de Rouworth, of Hope, to John Dean, chaplain, and Ricnard Bocking, to give seisin to Anabella his sister of a piece of land under Nunley.

On August 15th, 1411, William Horderon and Anabella his wife granted to John de Staveley a piece of arable land lying between “Le Greensyde” and “Le Nunnley”.

In the fifth year of the reign of Edward III. (1332), John de Bradwall was witness to a Shatton deed.

In the 19th year of the reign of Henry VII. (1504), Robert Eyre, of Padley, died, seized of lands at Broadwall, 6 messuages and 124 acres, held of the King as parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster. A service twice a year at the court of Peak Castle.

In the first year of the reign of Richard III. (1483), Nicholas Eyre, of Redseats, Castleton, had lands in Bradwall.

In October, 1657, William Fitzherbert and his son Basill, his heir apparent, owned the Farcotes, in Bradwell - probably alienated about this time by them.

In 1711, Thomas How, husbandman, of Youlgrave, and Mary How, his wife, in consideration of forty pounds and one shilling, conveyed to Thomas Middleton, of Bradwall, butcher, a barn adjoining “Ye Hollowgate and Ye Gutter”. The witnesses to the deed were Laurans Marshall, Hugh Bradwall, and Chr. Marshall.

In 1715, John Derneley, of the Mountains, in Bradwall, is mentioned in a Duchy deed, and Mark Furness in the same document.

In the reign of Henry III. or Edward I., Robert de Bradewell, son of Will, son of Fabiana de Bradewell, granted to Richard, his brother, half a bovate of land in Bradewell, the rent being a rose on the Feast of St. Peter and Paul (29th June). The witnesses to the deed were John Flemink, bailiff of the Peak, Will Hally, Robert Balgy, etc.

On the Wednesday before the Feast of St. John (24th June), 1376, a final concord was made in the Court of John, King of Castile and Leon, Duke of Lancaster, at Castelton, whereby John de Wetton and Elena, his wife, release to Walter de Bradwalle a messuage and nine acres of land in Bradwalle.

Under date 15th July, 1532, there is a lease for five years from James Denton, Dean, and the Chapter of Lichfield, to Nicholas Bagshawe, of Capella de by Fryth, of the tithes of hay and corn at Bradwall, and of the mill of Brugh.

Under date 1430, there is a lease from the Prior and Convent “des Preez”, of Derby, to Walter Halley, of Blakebrook, Henry Joye, Hugh, son of the said Walter Halley, and William del Kyrke, of Chapel, of the pasture of Byrstallegh (Berristal Lodge, Bradwell), in the parish of Hope.

On October 5th, 1551, Henry Wyllyaves, Dean, and the Chapter of Lichfield, leased for 99 years the tithes of Bradwall, Brughmill, Offreton, Abney and Abney Grange, Upper and Lower Shatton, Overton and Hvlowe, to Nicholas Bagshawe, of Farewell, co. Staff.

On November 11th, 1483, Nicholas Eyre, of Redseats, Castleton, executed a feoffment to Richard Vernon, of Hasyl Badge. Henry Columbell, of Darley, Walter Halley and Hugh Needham, of all his lands in Redseats, Castylton, Bradwall, Herdikwall.

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and Sterndale, in High Peak, in trust for the said Nicholas, with remainder to his sons, Nicholas and Martin.

In 1714, Thomas Eyre, gentleman, leased to Thomas Middleton, Bradwall, clothier, his one-sixth part of a farm in Bradwall, called Little Martin's farm, namely, 3 closes of land in Stretfield, and a little Pingle under Eden Tree, one-fourth part of pasture under Eden Tree, one Bastard Rood in Grey Ditch, one Butt under Micklow, and one-sixth part of all commons to the same, on payment of £4 11s. 8d., and one fat hen yearly, and the keeping of a hound or spaniel every sixth year.

In 1742. Martin Middleton, yeoman, and Thomas Middleton, of Smalldale, weaver, granted to Thomas Middleton, for £20, a close called The Hassocks, subject to the payment of 5s. a year to the poor of Bradwell as charged by the will of Thomas Middleton, father of Martin Middleton, on the Feast Day of St. Thomas the Apostle for ever.

In 1766, Elizabeth Middleton, widow, and her son Martin Middleton, husbandman, of Bradwall, for £32, conveyed to Isaac Maltby, blacksmith, “all that housing and backside known by the name of Gutter Barn”, on payment to His Majesty King George fourpence a year. The deed was signed by the vendors, and also by Thomas Middleton, clergyman, brother and heir to Martin Middleton, and witnessed by Robert Hall and Elias Marshall.

In Calendar of Deeds at Derby is: 14 July, 14 George III. (A.D. 1774), John Wagstaff, then late of Glossop, in the County of Derby, farmer, but then of Youldgreave, in the same county, of the first part; Edward Timperley, of Youldgreave, aforesaid, gentleman of the second part; and Samuel Hadfield, of Newton Heath, in the Parish of Manchester, in the County of Lancaster.

Bargain and sale in fee of a messuage in Bradwell, in the County of Derby, a parcel of land thereunto belonging, one other messuage and one croft called Whortley Yard in Broadwall, another messuage there, a barn and a little building in Bradwell aforesaid, and a barn called the Cock Barn, and the several hereditaments within Bradwell aforesaid, subject to a life estate therein of Olive Wagstaff.

In 1784 Adam Hallam, butcher, conveyed to John Bradwall, yeoman, a house and butcher's shop in Bradwall. In 1794 William Jacson, of Smalldale, miner, in consideration of the upper part of a croft called Offerton Croft, and five shillings in money, conveyed to Charles Andrew, of Smalldale, farmer and lime burner, a croft at Eden Tree. The witnesses to the deed were Robert Whitley and John Ellis.

In 1798 Charles Andrew, late of Eden Tree, near Bradwall, but now of Chesterfield, labourer, and Mary, his wife, for £83 12s. 6d., conveyed to George Ibberson, of Bradwall, labourer, the croft at Eden

Tree, on which he had built a house and barn. This deed was witnessed by Benjamin Barber and Robert Middleton.

Even in the 16th Century the working classes were little better than slaves, for an Act of 1562 compelled all persons between the ages of fifteen and sixty not otherwise employed or apprenticed to serve in husbandry; if they left their employment unlawfully they were sent to prison, and servants leaving a parish without a testimonial were liable to imprisonment. The magistrates in Quarter Sessions fixed both the hours of work and the rate of wages, and any labourer who did not obey was liable to be fined £5 and serve a month in gaol. And no employer was allowed to give higher wages; if he did so he was liable to a fine and imprisonment. Single women between twelve and forty were compelled to work, and a workman who assaulted his master must be imprisoned for not less than a year. And in 1597 the Act was extended to weavers.

The condition of the working classes in Bradwell may be gathered when it is mentioned that in the year 1634 farm lads under twenty had to work for ten shillings a year, and a female of that age a pound, while the wages of a harvestman varied from eightpence to a shilling a day, and a woman haymaker sixpence a day, while a day labourer had sixpence a day in winter and sevenpence in summer. Those receiving these sums had to find their own food. Carpenters, joiners, plumbers, glaziers, masons, bricklayers, slaters, and plasterers had only a shilling a day, reduced by 2d. a day during winter, and the law compelled all tradesmen to work for the farmers during harvest, or be punished by being put in the stocks. In twelve years the wages had been raised about 4d. a day. No wonder that the Bradwell men preferred to work in the mines, where they had their liberty rather than be under such servitude. And at a time when wheat was 41s. 8d. a quarter.

In the 16th Century subsidies or aids were granted by Parliament to the Crown on various occasions for Royal or Imperial purposes, and were levied upon landowners in respect of the annual value of their lands at the rate of 4s. in the £, and upon other persons in respect of their movable goods, including crops on the gross value at the rate of 2s. 8d. in the £. In 1599 those who were assessed and paid this tax on their lands in Bradwell were Elliz Marshall, George Howe, and Mark Trickett, and in 1634 the freeholders were John Hallam, William Marshall, and Miles Marshall.

Seventeenth Century Residents.

From the Easter Roll for the Parish of Hope for the year 1658 we get a very fair glimpse of the condition of the people of Bradwell in the middle of the seventeenth

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century. These Easter dues were quite distinct from the tithing of animals. In Hope parish it was the custom to pay 2d. upon each cow, 1d. on each calf, an acknowledgement of 1d. from every keeper of sheep, and 2d. from every bee-keeper. These ecclesiastical dues were rigidly enforced.

As showing that Bradwell must have been a populous village even so long ago, the list is of value, there being over 150 who had Easter dues to pay on their live stock. Here again, many of the old family names will be found, some of whom have long ago left the soil, while others remain. The “Bradwall” list is as follows:-

  s. d.
Adam Slacke011
Adam Wright09
Adam Kirke14
Adam Thornehill11
Adam Padley010
Adam Balgay, gent.09
Adam Hallam09
Adam Marshall09
Allen Bower09
Andrew Smith09
Andrew Hallam010
Baggot Hadfield010
Eliz. Wood09
Edw. Slacke06
Edw. Marshall011
Edw. Wright10
Ellis Midleton10
Ellis Ashton11
Ellis Lynderland10
Ellis Mellor11
Ellis Morten09
Francis Yellott06
George Morten11
George Eyre22
Geo. Doodin09
Geo. Slacke10
Geo. Wilson010
Geo. Bridocke11
Geo. Worseley11
Geo. Hunter09
Geo. Bradwall34
Geo. Andrewes11
Geo. Burrowes10
Gilbert Charlesworth alias Marshall09
Godfrey Hallam10
Godfrey Marshall011
Godfrey Morten10
Godfrey Chapman09
Henry Slacke07
Hen. Tricket010
Hen. Bromehead09
Hen. How09
Hugh Taylor alias Hall09
Hugh Hill, sen.   
Hugh Bradwall12
Humphrey Midleton010
Humphrey Marshall09
John Downing10
John Wyld   
John Hurler09
Jo. Case, sen.010
Jo. Case, jun.09
James Bagshawe09
John Wood09
Jo. Yellott010
Jo. Bradwall10
Jo. Hambleton011
Jo. Hallowe10
Jo. Wright011
Jo. Ogden09
Jo. Swinscow11
John Bullock09
James Middleton09
Jo. Lingard and his mother-in-law09
Jo. How09
Jo. Morten010
Jo. Wilson09
Jo. Middleton09
Joseph Burrowes09
Lawrence Balgay, gent.010
Lawrence Marshall09
Matthew Thornhill14
Mark Woodriffe09
Martin Marshall, Bayliffe09
Martin Middleton110
Martin How06
Martin Marshall09
Martin Furnesse09
Mathew Bromehead09
Michael Hill09
Nicolas Sykes11
Richard Millward08
Rob. Offerton15
Rob. Midleton, sen.17
Richard Middleton09
Robt. Clowes14
Rbt. Marshall11
Rbt. Burrowes010
Ro. Bradwall09
Rob. Hallom, fil. Ellis09
Rob. Heyward09
Roger How09
Richard Ragg010
Rob. Leech08
Rob. Hall, jun.09
Ralph Cowper   
Robt. Eyre09
Rich. Frost09
Rob. Palfreyman09
Rob. Hallam11
Rob. Hall011
Rob. Middleton, jun.09
Roger Smyth16
Steven Jackson09
Thomas Slacke011
Tho. Armefeild07
Tho. How, ye sonne of Mich.10
Tho. Ashton alias Quimby010
Tho. Dower010
Tho. Morten010
Tho. Brownell09
Tho. Padley09
Tho. Hall10
Tho. Bromhead, jun.09
Tho. Marshall11
Tho. Dolphin09
Tho. Bradwall110
Tho. Eyre011
Tho. Bromehead, sen.06
Tho. Hallom, sonne of Humph.011
Tho. Bray16
Tho. How, fil: John110
Tho. Doodin09
Tho. Marshall, sen.09
Tho. Hallom, Outland10
Uxor, Jo. Barbor09
Uxor, Jo. Nowell09
Uxor, Jo. Doodin05
Uxor, Tho.: Middleton09
Uxor, Wm. Bramhall, cum fil nuptis07
Uxor, Noden07
Uxor, Heath, Anderson07
Uxor, Rich. Hallom010
Uxor, John Chapman06
Uxor, Tho. Padley06
Uxor, Wm. Eyre06
Uxor, Wm. Wilson cum matre06
Uxor, Bradwall cum filio Dennis10
Uxor, Low07
Uxor, Francis Heyward07
Uxor, Tho. Jackson, sen.07
Uxor, Miles Marshall10
Uxor, Dernelly09
Wm Midleton, alias Wilson09
Wm Hunter010
Will Jackson16
Wm Nelson09
Wm How, fil Jo.09
Wm How, fil Mich.13
Wm Burgesse09
Wm Hartle10
Wm Hill12
Wm Hall010
Wm Smith09
Wm Case09
Wm Hugill09
Will Downing09
Wm Hall, sen.10
Wm Charlesworth010
 

“Uxor”, of course, means “widow”.[1]

The enclosure of the common lands was made in the year 1806, and the award executed in 1819. The lands thus awarded to various owners measured 718 acres 17 perches.

In “a particular account of the rents due and payable to her present Majesty Queen Anne within the Manner of High Peak for the year 1709”, we have:-

“BRADWALL”.
Rowland Eyre, Esq., for Brough Mill000700 
Ditto for Nether Hall000900 
Ditto for Thornhill000600 
Ellis Middleton for Land near Brough000001½
Ellis Middleton, of Brough000200½
Hugh Bradwell, son of George000200½
William Bradwell000100 
Edmund Greaves, for part of Ellis Bradbury000008½
Wm. Ragg for part of the same000009½
Godfrey King, for Land there000200 
Mr. Richard Bagshawe and John Hurler for part of Mr. Eyre's000200 
Hugh Bradwall, for part of Mr. Eyre's000003 
George Lingard for an Intack for Coppy000001 
George Bagshawe for Land000001 
Ditto for Land, late Revels000002 
John Middleton for fallow land000006 
Libertys of Bradwall001000 
Edward Eyre for Land, late Oldfield's000004 
Turbary000400 
Pinfold000006 

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Isaac Morton for Land late Marshall's000001½
Martin Middleton for Gregory's Revil's000101½
Ditto for Land, late Ward's000007½
Ditto for more late Middleton's000003 
John Morewood, Esq., for Land late James Middleton's000004 
Edwd. Bradwell, son of Hugh, for Geo. Bradwell000001 
Ditto for more, late Revill's000002 
Humphrey Blackwell for copp000001 
Rowland Eyre, Esq00001 1½
Thomas Toft for Land000002 
John Crooks000004 
William Middleton000004 
Thomas Howe000004 
Do. for Derneley's000002 
Thomas Thornhill000004 
Mr. John Wagstaff000400 
Thos. Silvester000104 
John Howe for Coppy000001 
The Heires of John Hurlor for part of Stephen Marshall's000004 
Ditto for more late Heathcot's000004 
John Roe for Land late Mr. Eyre's000504 
Mr. Ward for Land late Revil's000004 
Joseph Ibbotson, for coppy000001½

When Voting was “Open”.

At the Parliamentary election of 1734 the candidates for Derbyshire were the Right Hon. Charles Cavendish, Liberal; Sir Nathaniel Curzon, Bart.; and Henry Harper, Esq., Tories. The following were the electors of Bradwell at that time:-

Name.Place of Abode.
John BradwellBradwall.
Robt. Burrows, sen.Bradwall.
Robt. Burrows, jun.Bradwall.
Joseph BurrowsGreat Hucklow.
Thomas ChapmanBradwall.
Thomas DuddinBradwall.
Robert FrenchSmalldale.
John GreavesBradwall.
Godfrey HallBradwall.
Robert HallamBradwall.
Thomas HallamBradwall.
---. IbbotsonSmalldale.
Benjamin KirkBradwall.
Elliss MarshallBradwall.
Martin MiddletonBradwall.
Martin MiddletonBradwall.
Richard MiddletonBradwall.
Richard Middleton, junBradwall.
Thomas MiddletonBradwall.
Isaac MortonHognaston.
Monk [sic] MorganAshover.
Philemon PickfordBradwall.
Daniel RoeSmalldale.
John SaltBradwall.
George TrickettSmalldale.
Joseph VernonChinley.
Richard WraggBradwall.
William WraggBradwall.
Richard WorsleyBradwall.

All these voted for Cavendish with the exception of Daniel Roe, who voted for Curzon. The result was: Cavendish, 2,077; Curzon, 2,038; Harper, 1,800. Cavendish and Curzon were elected the members for Derbyshire. At the election of 1868, the following were the votes of the Bradwell electors: - Lord George Henry Cavendish (L.), 120; Sir William Jackson (L.), 124; Captain A.P. Arkwright (C), 28.

Brough Mill and Approach to Roman Camp
BROUGH MILL AND APPROACH TO ROMAN CAMP.

Editor's Note
[1] This is not strictly true. Normally “uxor” would translate as ‘wife’, though possibly in this context, it may be construed to mean ‘widow’. In relation to the list generally, readers should also note there are differences between it and the version transcribed from Chapter VIII of Notes from a Peakland Parish. There are 2 omissions in the above list - “Tho: Jackson” and “uxor Robt. Midleton”, and 2 noted differences in recorded surname - Lynderland in place of Synderland, and Yellott for Gillott, plus other minor spelling variations. Users will need to consult the original source to know which is correct, since both have been verified against the printed source. The Hope list includes the detail of what the tithe was levied for, also, intriguingly, records “Tho. Hallom, Outland” (above) as “Tho: Hallom, outlawe”.

OCR/transcript by Rosemary Lockie in February 2013.

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